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Jatamansi

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Nardostachys jatamansi is generally known as Jatamansi in India. It is a flowering plant of the Valerian family that grows in the Himalayas of China, also found growing in the northern region of India and Nepal. The plant grows to about 1 m in height and has pink, bell-shaped flowers. It is found in the altitude of about 3000-5000 meters.
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Botanical Names
Nardostachys jatamansi
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Jatamansi, Mamsi Bengali : Jatamansi Gujarati : Kalichhad, Jatamasi Hindi : Jatamansi, Bal-chir Malayalam : Jatamansi, Bal-chir Marathi : Jatamansi, Bal-chir Kannada : Jatamansi, Bal-chir Tamil : Jatamanshi Telugu : Jatamamshi
Chemical Constituents
Major constituents include essential oil valeranone (jatamansone), a sesquiterpenoid, and 0.02-0.1%. A number of sesquiterpenoids viz., spirojatamol, patchouli alcohol, norseychelanone and ,patchoulenes, jatamol A& B, jatamansic acid, terpenic ciumarins viz., oroselol and jatamansin; lignans and neolignans like (+) -1-hydroxypinaresinol, virolin etc.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A Chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herb is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
In Ayurveda, the roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been clinically employed for their anti-ischemic, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective activities. N. jatmansi also works as a memory enhancer. Furthermore, it also reversed aging-induced amnesia due to natural aging of mice. Hence, N. jatmansi might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly persons. The underlying mechanism of action can be attributed to its antioxidant property. The root and rhizome contain active compounds with carminative, sedative, antispasmodic and tranquilizing properties.
Health Benefits
Jatamansi has a long history of use as ethnomedicine, perfume, incense and in modern medicine industry. The plant valued for its antispasmodic and stimulant properties, is useful in the treatment of heart palpitations, constipation, urination, menstruation and digestion. Rhizomes and roots are used as cardiac tonic, tranquilizer, antiseptic, laxative, stomachic, for curing wound, insomnia, hysteria, neuralgia, convulsion, vertigo, chronic skin disease, low and high blood pressure, epilepsy, leprosy, bronchitis, jaundice, carminative. It is also used as an insect repellant. Essential oil from the drug shows antimicrobial activity against a number of microorganisms.
Research References
www.pubmed.gov 1) Nardostachys jatamansi protects against cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis.(Bae GS, Park HJ, Kim DY, Song JM, Kim TH, Oh HJ, Yun KJ, Park RK, Lee JH, Shin BC, Sim HJ, Hong SP, Song HJ, Park SJ.Pancreas. 2010 May;39(4):520-9.PMID: 19940795). 2) The role of antioxidant properties of Nardostachys jatamansi in alleviation of the symptoms of the chronic fatigue syndrome.(Lyle N, Gomes A, Sur T, Munshi S, Paul S, Chatterjee S, Bhattacharyya D.Behav Brain Res. 2009 Sep 14;202(2):285-90. Epub 2009 Apr 16.PMID: 19375459). 3) Stress modulating antioxidant effect of Nardostachys jatamansi.(Lyle N, Bhattacharyya D, Sur TK, Munshi S, Paul S, Chatterjee S, Gomes A.Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Feb;46(1):93-8.PMID: 19374260). 4) Insecticidal activity of Valeriana jatamansi (Valerianaceae) against mosquitoes.(Dua VK, Alam MF, Pandey AC, Rai S, Chopra AK, Kaul VK, Dash AP.J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 2008 Jun;24(2):315-8.PMID: 18666542) 5) Inhibition of MAO and GABA: probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice. (Dhingra D, Goyal PK.Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Apr; 46(4):212-8.PMID: 18512329). 6) Inhibition of MAO and GABA: probable mechanisms for antidepressant-like activity of Nardostachys jatamansi DC. in mice.(Dhingra D, Goyal PK.Indian J Exp Biol. 2008 Apr;46(4):212-8.PMID: 18512329). 7) Nardostachys jatamansi improves learning and memory in mice.(Joshi H, Parle M.J Med Food. 2006 Spring; 9(1):113-8.PMID: 16579738). 8) Anticonvulsant and neurotoxicity profile of Nardostachys jatamansi in rats.(Rao VS, Rao A, Karanth KS.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Dec 1;102(3):351-6. Epub 2005 Aug 10.PMID: 16095854). 9) Protective effect of Nardostachys jatamansi in rat cerebral ischemia.(Salim S, Ahmad M, Zafar KS, Ahmad AS, Islam F.Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003 Jan;74(2):481-6.PMID: 12479970). 10) Nardostachys jatamansi protects against liver damage induced by thioacetamide in rats.(Ali S, Ansari KA, Jafry MA, Kabeer H, Diwakar G.J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Aug;71(3):359-63.PMID: 10940571). 11) Infantile rotavirus enteritis treated with herbal Valeriana jatamansi (VJ).(Chen SD, Xie XL, Du BN, Su QH, Wei QD, Wang YQ, Li HL, Wang ZG, Wang YH, Cheng SJ, et al.J Tradit Chin Med. 1984 Dec;4(4):297-300. No abstract available. PMID: 6570505). 12) Effect of Nardostachys jatamansi fumes and aerosols in histamine-induced bronchial asthma in guinea pigs.(GUPTA SS, PATEL CB, MATHUR VS.J Indian Med Assoc. 1961 Sep 1; 37:223-5. No abstract available. PMID: 13903009). 13) Nardostachys Jatamansi DC: its sedative and depressant action as estimated by Warburg technique.(BOSE BC, GUPTA SS, BHATNAGAR JN, VIJAYVARGIYA R.Indian J Med Sci. 1957 Oct;11(10):803-7. No abstract available. PMID: 13491086). 14) Prolonged hypotensive effect of the essential oil of Nardostachys jatamansi.(ARORA RB, SINGH KP, DAS PK, MISTRY PN.Arch Int Pharmacodyn Ther. 1958 Jan 1;113(3-4):367-76. No abstract available. PMID: 13522275). 1. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (Revised New Edition 2002). 2. Standardization of Botanicals, Volume 2- By Dr. V. Rajpal. 3. www.pubmed.gov