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Tagar

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Valeriana wallichii is a hairy perennial herb, growing in temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan and Khasia hills up to an altitude of 3,000m. It belongs to the family Valerianaceae. It is found in neighboring countries Nepal, Bhutan, and Afghanistan.
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Botanical Names
Valeriana wallichii
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Tagar Bengali : Tagar paduka, Muskbala, Shumeo Gujarati : Tagar ganthoda, Tagar gantho, Ghodawaj Hindi : Tagar, Sugandhbala, Muskbala, Bala tagar Malayalam : Thakaram Marathi : Tagar, Ganthode Kannada : Mandibattal, Mandya vanthu, Mandibattalu, Tagar Tamil : Tagarai Telugu : Grandhi tagaramu
Chemical Constituents
Major constituents of Valeriana wallichii include Valepotriates, Balddrinal, Isovaleric acid, Valerenic acid, Valerenal, Valerenone, Bornyl acetate, Bornyl isovalerate, Elemol, Actinidine, Valerianine.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug.Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herb is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Valeriana wallichii is anti spasmodic, stimulant, carminative and stomachic in nature. It is useful in diseases of eye, blood and livers. It is used as a remedy for hysteria, hypochondriasis, nervous unrest and emotional stress. Valeriana wallichii possess very good anti stress, anti anxiety, anti depressant activities. Clinical studies have also demonstrated and supported its use as anti depressant agent. The valepotriates showed a tranquilizing effect in mice. Valtrate and dihydrovaltrate important component of Valeriana wallichii were found to be thymoleptic like some antidepressant drugs. Valerenic acid is endowed with sedative activity evaluated in terms of decrease of locomotor activity, decreased rotarod performance and ataxia.
Health Benefits
Tagar is a good cure and good remedy for stress and anxiety. It is also very effective in curing insomnia. Tagar is very effective in treating skin problems; the paste of tagar leaves may be applied on skin to cure skin problems like- itching, redness, eczema, boils, psoriasis and ulcers thus gives a cooling effect which helps in curing these skin problems and making skin look healthy and clear. Tagar is used for reducing pain and useful in reducing blood pressure. It is useful in curing respiratory infections like asthma, cold, cough and also cures fever if it is a cause of infection.
Research References
• www.pubmed.gov Pubmed, a wellknown site has listed important studies going on around the world in various universities. These include….. 1) Terpenoid content of Valeriana wallichii extracts and antidepressant-like response profiles.(Subhan F, Karim N, Gilani AH, Sewell RD.Phytother Res. 2010 May; 24(5):686-91.PMID: 19943315). 2) Initial exploratory observational pharmacology of Valeriana wallichii on stress management: a clinical report.(Bhattacharyya D, Jana U, Debnath PK, Sur TK.Nepal Med Coll J. 2007 Mar;9(1):36-9.PMID: 17593676). 3) Antispasmodic and blood pressure lowering effects of Valeriana wallichii are mediated through K+ channel activation.(Gilani AH, Khan AU, Jabeen Q, Subhan F, Ghafar R.J Ethnopharmacol. 2005 Sep 14;100(3):347-52.PMID: 16002246). 4) Isolation and identification of 6-methylapigenin, a competitive ligand for the brain GABA (A) receptors, from Valeriana wallichii.(Wasowski C, Marder M, Viola H, Medina JH, Paladini AC.Planta Med. 2002 Oct; 68(10):934-6.PMID: 12391561). 5) Valepotriate production of normal and colchicine-treated cell suspension cultures of Valeriana wallichii.(Becker H, Chavadej S.J Nat Prod. 1985 Jan-Feb; 48(1):17-21.PMID: 4009183). 6) [Linarin-isovalerianate, a currently unknown flavonoid from Valeriana wallichii D.C. 6. Report on the active substances of Valeriana]. (Thies PW.Planta Med. 1968 Dec;16(4):363-71. German. No abstract available. PMID: 5734374). 7) Nematicidal activity of plant essential oils and components from coriander (Coriandrum sativum), Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis), and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils against pine wood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus).(Kim J, Seo SM, Lee SG, Shin SC, Park IK.J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Aug 27; 56(16):7316-20. Epub 2008 Jul 8.PMID: 18605734). 8) Effect of chlorophyll and aqueous extracts of Bacopa monniera and Valeriana wallichii on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced cerebral injury in mice.(Rehni AK, Pantlya HS, Shri R, Singh M.Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Sep; 45(9):764-9.PMID: 17907741). 9) Effects of Plant Bioregulators on Valepotriate Production of Cell Suspension Cultures of Valeriana wallichii and Fedia cornucopiae.(Förster W, Becker H.Planta Med. 1986 Dec;52(6):510. No abstract available. PMID: 17345436). 1. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (Revised New Edition 2002). 2. Standardization of Botanicals, Volume 2- By Dr. V. Rajpal. 3. www.pubmed.gov