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Guduchi

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Tinospora cordifolia, known as Guduchi, is an herbaceous vine of the family Menispermaceae. It is indigenous to the tropical areas of India, Myanmar and Sri Lanka. The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood.
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Botanical Names
Tinospora cordifolia
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Guduchio, Amrita Bengali : Gulancha Gujarati : Gulvel Hindi : Giloe, Amria, Gulancha Malayalam : Amrytu, Chittamritam Marathi : Gulvel Kannada : Amrutaballi Tamil : Amudom, Sindal Telugu : Tippateega, Guduchi, Guluchim
Chemical Constituents
A variety of constituents have been isolated from Tinospora cordifolia plant. They belong to different classes such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Leaves of Guduchi are rich in protein (11.2%) and are fairly rich in calcium and phosphorus. The active adaptogenic constituents found in Tinospora cordifolia are diterpene compounds including tinosporone, tinosporic acid, cordifolisides A to E, syringen, the yellow alkaloid, berberine, Giloin, crude Giloininand, a glucosidal bitter principle as well as polysaccharides, including arabinogalactan polysaccharide (TSP) Picrotene and bergenin were also found in the plant.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug.Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herb is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Tinospora cordifolia shows anti-inflammatory, analgesic, hepatoprotective and antipyretic actions. These activities have also been confirmed with animal studies. Ethanolic extract of the stem exhibits protective effect in carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity. Aqueous extract of stem and root of the plant has been used therapeutically because of immunomodulation property as well as antimalarial and antileprotic activities. The alcoholic extract of the plant is prescribed in Ayurveda and Allopathy as an immune promoter. Guduchi is widely used in veterinary folk medicine and Ayurvedic system of medicine for its general tonic, antiperiodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, antiarthritic, anti-allergic and anti-diabetic properties. The root of this plant is known for its antistress, anti-leprotic and anti-malarial activities. The active principles of Tinospora cordifolia, a traditional Indian medicinal plant were found to possess immuno modulatory activities.
Health Benefits
Tinospora cordifolia is generally prescribed in general debility, diabetes, fever, jaundice, skin diseases, rheumatism, urinary diseases, dyspepsia, gout, gonorrhoea and leucorrhoea. The plant is used in Ayurvedic, "Rasayanas" to improve the immune system and the body resistance against infections. A decoction of the stems, leaves and roots is used to treat fever, cholera, diabetes, and snake-bites, an infusion of the stem is drunk as a vermifuge and also to treat sore eyes and syphilitic sores. The stem is registered in the Thailand Pharmacopoeia, and commonly use in hospital to treat diabetes. Traditionally an infusion is used to treat fever due to malaria and also in cases of jaundice and for use against intestinal worms. The leaves are given for the cure of gonorrhoea. It is also used externally as a cooling and soothing application in prurigo, eczema and impetigo.
Research References
1. S.S. SINGH., S.C. PANDEY, S. SRIVASTAVA., V.S. GUPTA., B. PATRO and A.C. GHOSH CHEMISTRY AND MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (GUDUCHI) Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 83-91 EDUCATIONAL FORUM 2. VAIBHAV D. A. and ARUNKUMAR W. PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA AS AN IMMUNOMODULATOR International Journal of CURRENT PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH 2(4) 2010 3. VEENA R DESAI, J P KAMAT and K B SAINIS An immunomodulator from Tinospora cordifolia with antioxidant activity in cell-free systems Proc. Indian Acad. Sci. (Chem. Sci.), 2002, 114(6):713–719 4. Ranjan Kumar S. Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant drug in the treatment of hyper-reactive malarious splenomegaly – case reports J Vect Borne Dis 42, March 2005, pp 36–38 5. Fatima R., K.M.Noorulla, M.Asma, R.Kalaichelvi, K. Vadivel, B. Thangabalan, B.N.Sinha INVITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC ROOT EXTRACT OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA (WILLD) International Journal of Pharma. Research and Development. 1. Evaluation of mammary gland immunity and therapeutic potential of Tinospora cordifolia against bovine subclinical mastitis. (Mukherjee R, De UK, Ram GC.Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010 Apr;42(4):645-51. Epub 2009 Oct 30.PMID: 19876755). 2. Beneficiary effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet induced abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in Wistar rats.(Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Ramesh B, Baskar R, Saralakumari D.Horm Metab Res. 2009 Oct;41(10):741-6.PMID: 19764107). 3. Alpha glucosidase inhibition by stem extract of Tinospora cordifolia.(Chougale AD, Ghadyale VA, Panaskar SN, Arvindekar AU.J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Aug;24(4):998-1001.PMID: 19555164). 4. Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats.(Reddy SS, Ramatholisamma P, Karuna R, Saralakumari D.Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Sep;47(9):2224-9. Epub 2009 Jun 9.PMID: 19520137). 5. Molecular events in the activation of B cells and macrophages by a non-microbial TLR4 agonist, G1-4A from Tinospora cordifolia.(Raghu R, Sharma D, Ramakrishnan R, Khanam S, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB.Immunol Lett. 2009 Mar 24;123(1):60-71. Epub 2009 Feb 20.PMID: 19428553). 6. Androgenic action of Tinospora cordifolia ethanolic extract in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP.(Kapur P, Pereira BM, Wuttke W, Jarry H.Phytomedicine. 2009 Jun;16(6-7):679-82. Epub 2008 Dec 20.PMID: 19097771). 7. Hypoglycemic activity of the antioxidant saponarin, characterized as alpha-glucosidase inhibitor present in Tinospora cordifolia.(Sengupta S, Mukherjee A, Goswami R, Basu S.J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem. 2009 Jun;24(3):684-90.PMID: 18951283). 8. Chemopreventive potential of Epoxy clerodane diterpene from Tinospora cordifolia against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.(Dhanasekaran M, Baskar AA, Ignacimuthu S, Agastian P, Duraipandiyan V.Invest New Drugs. 2009 Aug;27(4):347-55. Epub 2008 Oct 14.PMID: 18853103). 9. Preliminary investigation of the radiosensitizing activity of guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) in tumor-bearing mice.(Rao SK, Rao PS, Rao BN.Phytother Res. 2008 Nov;22(11):1482-9.PMID: 18803246). 10. Chemopreventive potential of an Indian medicinal plant (Tinospora cordifolia) on skin carcinogenesis in mice.(Chaudhary R, Jahan S, Goyal PK.J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol. 2008;27(3):233-43.PMID: 18652570). 11. Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients.(Kalikar MV, Thawani VR, Varadpande UK, Sontakke SD, Singh RP, Khiyani RK.Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Jun;40(3):107-10.PMID: 20040936). 12. Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Tinospora cordifolia in female rats.(Kapur P, Jarry H, Wuttke W, Pereira BM, Seidlova-Wuttke D.Maturitas. 2008 Apr 20;59(4):329-38. Epub 2008 May 15.PMID: 18482809). 13. Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study.(Panchabhai TS, Ambarkhane SV, Joshi AS, Samant BD, Rege NN.Phytother Res. 2008 May;22(5):646-50. Erratum in: Phytother Res. 2008 Sep; 22(9):1274. PMID: 18389486). 14. G1-4A, an immunomodulatory polysaccharide from Tinospora cordifolia, modulates macrophage responses and protects mice against lipopolysaccharide induced endotoxic shock.Desai VR, Ramkrishnan R, Chintalwar GJ, Sainis KB.Int Immunopharmacol. 2007 Oct;7(10):1375-86. Epub 2007 Jun 29.PMID: 17673153). 15. Immunomodulatory role of Tinospora cordifolia as an adjuvant in surgical treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective randomized controlled study.(Purandare H, Supe A.Indian J Med Sci. 2007 Jun;61(6):347-55.PMID: 17558098).