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Arjuna

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Terminalia arjuna belongs to the family Combretaceae. It is found in the lower Himalaya, Bengal, Central and Southern India. The Arjuna is about 20-25 metres tall; usually has a buttressed trunk, and forms a wide canopy at the crown. It has oblong, conical leaves which are green on the top and brown below; smooth, grey bark.
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Botanical Names
Terminalia arjuna
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Arjuna, Kakubha Bengali : Arjun. Arjhun Gujarati : Arjun-Sadada, Sadado Hindi : Arjun, Kahu Marathi : Arjun Sadada, Sadura Kannada : Maddi, Tora matti Tamil : Marutham pattai, Vellamatta, Vellamatta Marutae Telugu : Tellamaddi, Yerra maddi
Chemical Constituents
The active constituents found in the Terminalia arjuna are Triterpene glycosides, triterpenes, sterols, tannins, polyphenols, Anthocyanin, flavonoids and minerals. It contains Arjun glucoside I, arjun glucoside II, arjun glucoside III, arjunosides I, II, III, and IV. Arjunogenin, arjunolic acid, arjunic acid, oleanoic acid, -sitosterol, friedelin, Catechin, gallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin, gallic acid, ellagic acid (-) Leucodelphinidin, (+) leucocyanidin Arjunetin, arjunolone, arjunone.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
The liquid chromatographic equipment is equipped with a 280nm detector and a 5.0mmx15cm column that contains packing LI and is programmed to provide variable mixture of mobile phase A and mobile phase B. Initially, the system is held at a mixture consisting of 90% mobile phase A and 10% mobile phase B for 5.0minutes. The proportion of solvent B to Solvent A is increased linearly to 100% over the next 15 minutes. The flow rate is about 1ml/minute.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug.Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interact with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herb is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
The bark, leaves and fruits of Terminalia arjuna have been used in indigenous system of medicine for different ailments. The bark is said to be sweet, acrid, cooling and aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, purgative and laxative. The bark also acts as anti-dysenteric, antipyretic, astringent, cardiotonic, lithotriptic and tonic while the powder of the bark acts as a diuretic in cirrhosis of liver and gives relief in symptomatic hypertension. Its use has been advocated in urinary discharge, strangury, leucoderma, anaemia, hyperhidrosis, asthma and tumours. Ancient Indian physicians used the powdered tree bark of Terminalia arjuna for treating cardiovascular conditions. Its stem bark possesses glycosides, large quantities of flavonoids, tannins and minerals. Flavonoids have been detected to exert antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and lipid lowering effects while glycosides are cardiotonic, thus making Terminalia arjuna unique amongst currently used medicinal plants. Experimental studies have revealed its bark exerting significant inotropic and hypotensive effect, increasing coronary artery flow and protecting myocardium against ischemic damage.
Health Benefits
The arjuna tree is a well-known medicinal plant whose bark is extensively used in ayurvedic medicine, particularly as cardiac tonic. The bark is also prescribed in biliousness and sores and as an antidote to poison, and it is believed to have an ability to cure hepatic, congenital, venereal and viral diseases. A decoction of its bark with cane sugar and boiled cow’s milk is highly recommended for endocarditis, pericarditis and angina. The use of bark powder as an astringent and diuretic finds mention in the works of Charak.
Research References
1. U. S. KADAM1, S. B. GHOSH Antibacterial principles from the bark of Terminalia arjuna CURRENT SCIENCE, 2008, 94(1) 2. B. RAGHAVAN AND S. KRISHNA KUMARI EFFECT OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA STEM BARK ON ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN LIVER AND KIDNEY OF ALLOXAN DIABETIC RATS Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2006; 50 (2):133–142 3. Moulisha B., Kaushik B., Tarun K. K., Sanjib B., Ashoke K. G. and Pallab K. H. EVALUATION OF ANALGESIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA LEAF Journal of Phytology 2011, 3(1): 33-38 4. Shridhar Dwivedi Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.—A useful drug for cardiovascular disorders 5. Catecholamine-induced myocardial fibrosis and oxidative stress is attenuated by Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.).(Kumar S, Enjamoori R, Jaiswal A, Ray R, Seth S, Maulik SK.J Pharm Pharmacol. 2009 Nov;61(11):1529-36.PMID: 19903379). 6. Anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antinociceptive activity of Terminalia arjuna Roxb bark powder in mice and rats.(Halder S, Bharal N, Mediratta PK, Kaur I, Sharma KK.Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 Jul;47(7):577-83.PMID: 19761042). 7. Inhibitory effects of Terminalia arjuna on platelet activation in vitro in healthy subjects and patients with coronary artery disease.(Malik N, Dhawan V, Bahl A, Kaul D.Platelets. 2009 May;20(3):183-90.PMID: 19437336). 8. A novel endophytic Taxol-producing fungus Chaetomella raphigera isolated from a medicinal plant, Terminalia arjuna.(Gangadevi V, Muthumary J.Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2009 Sep;158(3):675-84. Epub 2009 Feb 21.PMID: 19234679). VARIOUS PRODUCTS 1) Arjuna Dry Extract- Premium, Standard and EC grade 2) Arjuna Soft Extract- Premium, Standard and EC grade 3) Arjuna Liquid Extract- Premium, Standard and EC grade 4) Arjuna Oil Soluble Extract- Premium, Standard and EC grade In all we have 12 varieties of Arjuna extracts.