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Hadjod

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Hadjod is botanically termed as Cissus quadrangularis. It is a perennial plant of the grape family. It belongs to the genus Cissus and family Vitaceae. It is probably native to India or Sri Lanka, but is also found in Africa, Arabia, and Southeast Asia. Cissus quadrangularis reaches a height of 1.5 m and has quadrangular-sectioned branches with internodes 8 to 10 cm long and 1.2 to 1.5 cm wide. Toothed trilobe leaves 2 to 5 cm wide appear at the nodes. Each has a tendril emerging from the opposite side of the node.
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Listing Details

Indian Names
Hindi : Hadjod, Harjora, Asthisanhari Bengali : Harjora Gujrati : Hadasankala Kannad : Mangroli Malyalam : Cannalam Paranta, Piranta Marathi : Hadsandhi, Chaudhari Tamil : Perandai, Pirantai Telugu : Nalleru
Chemical Constituents
Phytochemical analyses of Cissus quadrangularis reveal a high content of ascorbic acid, carotene, phytosterol substances and calcium, and there have also been reports of the presence of β-sitosterol, δ- amyrin and δ-amyrone. All these components have potentially different metabolic and physiologic effects. Phytochemical analyses of the stem contain two asymmetric tetracyclic triterpenoids, and two steroidal principles. The presence of β-sitosterol, δ-amyrin, δ-amyrone, and flavanoids (quercetin) has also been reported (1). Two new iridoids 6-O-[2,3-dimethoxy]-trans-cinnamoyl catalpol and 6-O-meta-methoxy-benzoyl catalpol along with a known iridoid picroside, two stilbenes quadrangularin A and pallidol, quercitin, quercitrin, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol glycoside were isolated from Cissus quadrangularis .
Pesticide Limits
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Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Hadjod has been used as a medicinal plant since antiquity. The siddha medicine mentions it as a tonic and analgesic, and prescribes its use to help heal broken bones. Cissus quadrangularis is used by common folk in India to hasten the fracture healing process (3). It also said to have antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, antihelmintic, antihemorrhoidal and analgesic activities. Its bactericidal effects on Helicobacter pylori hold promise as an effective treatment of gastric ulcers and preventative of stomach cancer in conjunction with NSAID therapy. The extract of stems further exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus species. The results of the study have implications in the use of C. quadrangularis as an antibacterial agent. Cissus quadrangularis, a medicinal plant indigenous to Asia and Africa, is used for many ailments, especially for the treatment of hemorrhoid. The effects associated with hemorrhoid, i.e. analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities as well as the venotonic effect of the methanol extract of C. quadrangularis were assessed in comparison with reference drugs.
Health Benefits
Cissus quadrangularis has been used by common folk in India for promoting the fracture healing process. Cissus quadrangularis, a plant that has been customarily used in the Indian subcontinent to hasten the process of healing in bone fractures. The plant extract serves as a rich source of calcium ions, which when reacted with CO2, leads to the formation of calcite crystals of highly irregular morphology indicating that bioorganic molecules present in the extract modulate the crystal morphology. In Cameroon, the whole plant is used in oral re-hydration, while the leaf, stem, and root extracts of this plant are important in the management of various ailments. Cissus quadrangularis is well known for the treatment of gastric disorders in traditional medicine, owing to its rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid, and has received considerable attention regarding its role in human nutrition. In the search of new potential antiulcer agents, the present study evaluated the ethanol extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CQE) against the gastric toxicity induced by aspirin in rats. It has also been used to treat obesity and associated oxidative stress. A weight loss supplement containing Cissus quadrangularis with several dietary supplements (green tea, soy, and selenium, chromium, and B vitamins) was evaluated in an 8-week clinical trial. The supplement helped to reduce body weight by 4-8% where as a placebo reduce it by 2.4% a clinically significant weight loss (5). It has also been used to treat osteoporosis, asthma, cough, hemorrhoids, and gonorrhea. In the traditional medicinal systems of India it has been reported to possess not only bone fracture healing.
Application in Cosmetics
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Research References
REFERENCES FOR FURTHER RESEARCH IN HADJOD PRODUCTS 1. Manisha M., Navneet K. and Bhutani K. Determination of marker constituents from Cissus quadrangularis Linn. and their quantitation by HPTLC and HPLC Phytochemical Analysis 2007, 12(2):91–95 2. Singh G., Rawat P. and Maurya R. Constituents of Cissus quadrangularis. Nat Prod Res. 2007, 21(6):522-528 3. Ambarish S., Absar A. and Murali S. Calcite growth in Cissus quadrangularis plant extract, a traditional Indian bone-healing aid RESEARCH COMMUNICATIONS 1742 CURRENT SCIENCE 2005, 89(10) 4. Julius O., Dieudonne K., Gabriel A., Claudia M. and Xavio T. The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome Lipids in Health and Disease 2006. 5. Julius E. O., Damaris M. E., Gilles I. F., Yves B. S. and Gabriel A. A. The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress Lipids in Health and Disease 2007. 6:4 22200000000000mhfg2007pen Access