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Dried juice of leaves of Aloe barbadensis Mill.(Syn. A.vera(Linn).Burm.f., A.indica Royle); Fam.Liliaceae. The plant is distributed throughout India.

Listing Details

Botanical Names
Aloe barbadensis Mill.(Syn. A.vera(Linn).
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Kumarirasasambhava, Ghrita- Kumari Bengali : Ghrita kumari Gujarati : Kunwar Hindi : Musabhar, Ghikanwar Kannada : Kolasoare, Komarika, Maulisara Malayalam : Kattavazha Marathi : Korphad Orissa : Kumari, Mushabora Tamil : Chirukattalai, Kattalai Telugu : Kalabanda
Chemical Constituents
Major constituents includes Glycosides- Anthracene derivatives: Hydroxyanthraquinone derivatives(25-40) viz., aloin (=barbaloin, a mixture of aloin A & B, the diastereoisomeric 10-C glucosides of aloe-emodin anthrone) and 7-hydroxyaloin isomers.Indian aoles contain aloinosides as major constituents with only traces of aloin. Minor constituents includes aloeemodin, chrysophanol; chromone derivatives viz., aloeresin B (=aloesin, upto 30%) with its p-coumaryl derivatives aloeresins A & C and the aglycone aloesone.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interact with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herb is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Health Benefits
Cathartic action of the drug, limited to large intestine, is attributed to anthraquinone glycosides, chiefly aloin. Latter is not absorbed in the upper gut but hydrolysed to the active aglycone at the site of action in the colon and rectum by intestinal bacteria.The anthrones irritate the mucus membrane, leading to an increase in the secretion of mucus, thus stimulating peristalsis. Also they induce an active secretion of water and electrolytes into the lumen of the gut and inhibit the absorption of electrolytes and water by the colon. Burn and Wound Healing: Typically the wound healing requires regeneration of skin and closing of the wound. Aloe Vera is soothing in nature due to its moisture content. Studies show that Aloe Vera when applied to a wound increases the rate of wound closure and enhances the proliferation of cells, whereby the healing is enhanced. Arthritis, Joint and Muscle Pain: Aloe Vera is believed to reduce severe joint and muscle pain associated with arthritis, tendinitis and other injuries. When applied directly to the area of pain, Aloe Vera penetrates the skin to soothe the pain. • Relieve Gastrointestinal Problems: • Coronary Heart Disease Studies suggest that the ingestion of Aloe Vera gel may have a beneficial effect to the accumulation of blood fat lipids associated with the disease. • Blood circulation - a number of constituents have beneficial effects on blood pressure and coagulation. • Digestion - One of its most popular use
Application in Cosmetics
Aging of the Skin: Components of Aloe Vera have been found to reverse degenerative skin changes by stimulating collagen and elastin synthesis. • Immune System Restoration: Research has proven that Aloe Vera improves skin's immune system. It protects against the UV radiation. • Moisturizer: Aloe Vera improves the skin's ability to hydrate itself, aids in the removal of dead skin cells and has an effective penetrating ability that helps transport healthy substances through the skin. • Arthritis, Joint and Muscle Pain: Aloe Vera is believed to reduce severe joint and muscle pain associated with arthritis, tendinitis and other injuries. When applied directly to the area of pain, Aloe Vera penetrates the skin to soothe the pain.
Research References
1) Anti-sickling potential of Aloe vera extract The effect of Aloe vera extract on the gelling time of human HbSS erythrocytes was investigated. The results showed that A.. vera extract increased the gelling time of HbSS blood and inhibited sickling in vitro. In addition, a linear relationship was found between extract concentration and gelling time, suggesting that A.. vera extract may have great potential in the management of sickle cell disease. 2) Some recent studies appear to show topical and orally administered aloe vera preparations in patients with angina and heart disease, diabetes, psroiasis, wound healing and chronic venous leg ulcers. 3) a) J Wound Care. 2004 Apr;13(4):157-8.: Phytotherapy: an alternative treatment for non-healing ulcers.Avijgan M.Shahr-e-kord University of Medical Sciences, Shahr-e-kord, Iran. b) Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Mar;4(3):411-8.: Mannan from Aloe saponaria inhibits tumoral cell activation and proliferation. c) Effects of Aloe Extracts on Human Normal & Tumor Cells In-VitroWinters WD; Benavides R; Clouse WJ (Dep. Microbiol., Univ. Tex. Health Sci. Center Econ Bot 35 (1), 1981, 89-95). d) Anticancer Effects of Aloe on Sarcoma 180 in ICR Mouse & On Human Cancer Cell Lines. (Jeong HY; Kim JH; Hwang SJ; Rhee DKColl. Pharm., Sung Kyun Kwan Univ Yakhak Hoeji 38 (3). 1994. 311-321) 4) • Antioxidant/Lipoxygenase Inhibitory Activities and Chemical Compositions of Selected Essential Oils.(Wei A, Shibamoto T. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 May 25). • Toxicological evaluation of aqueous extract of Aloe ferox Mill. in loperamide-induced constipated rats.(Wintola OA, Sunmonu TO, Afolayan A.Hum Exp Toxicol. 2010 May 24. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20498033 • Synthesis of cytotoxic and antioxidant Schiff's base analogs of aloin.(Kumar S, Matharasi DP, Gopi S, Sivakumar S, Narasimhan S.J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2010 May;12(5):360-70.PMID: 20496193) • Alternative therapies for common dermatologic disorders, part 2.(Morelli V, Calmet E, Jhingade V.Prim Care. 2010 Jun;37(2):285-96.PMID: 20493337) • A novel method for air drying aloe leaf slices by covering with filter papers as a shrink-proof layer.(Kim SA, Baek JH, Lee SJ, Choi SY, Hur W, Lee SY.J Food Sci. 2009 Nov-Dec; 74(9):E462-70.PMID: 20492108). • Medicinal plants used by traditional medicine practitioners for the treatment of HIV/AIDS and related conditions in Uganda.(Lamorde M, Tabuti JR, Obua C, Kukunda-Byobona C, Lanyero H, Byakika-Kibwika P, Bbosa GS, Lubega A, Ogwal-Okeng J, Ryan M, Waako PJ, Merry C.J Ethnopharmacol. 2010 May 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20451595) • Neurotrophins and acupuncture.(Manni L, Albanesi M, Guaragna M, Barbaro Paparo S, Aloe L.Auton Neurosci. 2010 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20451467) • Ocular Application of Nerve Growth Factor Protects Degenerating Retinal Ganglion Cells in a Rat Model of Glaucoma.(Colafrancesco V, Parisi V, Sposato V, Rossi S, Russo MA, Coassin M, Lambiase A, Aloe L.J Glaucoma. 2010 Apr 29. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20436364). • Protective effects of Aloe vera extract on mitochondria of neuronal cells and rat brain.(Wang Y, Cao L, Du G.Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Feb;35(3):364-8. Chinese. PMID: 20423007 • An extensive alien plant inventory from the inhabited areas of galapagos.Guézou A, Trueman M, Buddenhagen CE, Chamorro S, Guerrero AM, Pozo P, Atkinson R.PLoS One. 2010 Apr 21;5(4):e10276.PMID: 20421999. • Ultrasonic cell grinder extraction of anthraquinones from Radix et Rhizoma Rhei and determination by ultra-performance liquid chromatography.Wang GY, Qi HY, Shi YP.J Sep Sci. 2010 Apr 19. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20405483 • Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein induced DNA damage and inhibited DNA repair gene expression in SCC-4 human tongue cancer cells.Chen YY, Chiang SY, Lin JG, Yang JS, Ma YS, Liao CL, Lai TY, Tang NY, Chung JG.Anticancer Res. 2010 Mar;30(3):945-51.PMID: 20393018. • Heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines and comparison with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India.Maharia RS, Dutta RK, Acharya R, Reddy AV.J Environ Sci Health B. 2010 Feb;45(2):174-81.PMID: 20390948. • Effects of enhanced UV-B radiation on leaf anthraquinones content and cell ultrastructure of Aloe vera L.Wang HX, Yang TW, Li JY.Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao. 2010 Jan;21(1):260-4. Chinese. PMID: 20387453. • High prevalence of abscesses and self-treatment among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.Pollini RA, Gallardo M, Hasan S, Minuto J, Lozada R, Vera A, Zúñiga ML, Strathdee SA.Int J Infect Dis. 2010 Apr 6. [Epub ahead of print]PMID: 20381396. • Emodin, aloe-emodin and rhein inhibit migration and invasion in human tongue cancer SCC-4 cells through the inhibition of gene expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9.Chen YY, Chiang SY, Lin JG, Ma YS, Liao CL, Weng SW, Lai TY, Chung JG.Int J Oncol. 2010 May;36(5):1113-20.PMID: 20372784. • Effect of aloe cream versus silver sulfadiazine for healing burn wounds in rats.Hosseinimehr SJ, Khorasani G, Azadbakht M, Zamani P, Ghasemi M, Ahmadi A.Acta Dermatovenerol Croat. 2010;18(1):2-7.PMID: 20361881. • In vivo evidence of the immunomodulatory activity of orally administered Aloe vera gel.Im SA, Lee YR, Lee YH, Lee MK, Park YI, Lee S, Kim K, Lee CK.Arch Pharm Res. 2010 Mar;33(3):451-6. Epub 2010 Mar 30.PMID: 20361311. • Implications for degenerative disorders: Antioxidative activity, total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and beta-tocopherol in Aloe vera.Ozsoy N, Candoken E, Akev N.Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009 Apr; 2(2):99-106.PMID: 20357932. • Antifungal activities of Ocimum sanctum essential oil and its lead molecules.Khan A, Ahmad A, Manzoor N, Khan LA.Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Feb; 5(2):345-9.PMID: 20334156.