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Amla

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Dried fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.(Syn. Phyllanthus emblica Linn.)., are found both in the wild and cultivated state; all over India.
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Botanical Names
Emblica Officinalis
Indian Names
Sans. : Amalaka Beng. : Amlaki Guj. : Ambala, Amala Hindi : Amla, Aonla Mal. : Nelli Mar. : Avala Kan. : Amalaka, Nelli Tam. : Nelli Tel. : Usirikai, Usirika
Chemical Constituents
Major constituents include Vitamin C as ascorbic acid, tannins including, gallic acid, ellagic acid, phyllemblic acid and emblicol. Alkaloids like phyllantidine and phyllantine as well as pectin and minerals are also present.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug.Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interact with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Health Benefits
Emblica officinalis is very rich in Vitamin C. Studies indicate that it does not loose its Vitamin C content on storage. Vitamin C is highly important in the body mainly due its ability to remove free radicals which are harmful to body mainly due to its ability to remove free radicals. The descriptive role of free radicals in the body is a major challenge for cosmetologist, hence in most antiaging products, Vitamin C is added. Emblica being a natural source of vitamin C serves great purpose. Emblica officinalis is effective in the treatment of amlapitta (peptic ulcer) and in dyspepsia. The fruit exhibit hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic effects in rabbits and rats. The fruit extract has antimutagenic activity on certain directly acting mutagens in some strains of Salmonella typhimurium. The extract of amla also has antimicrobial properties. Amlaki is an antioxidant with free radical scavenging properties which may be due to presence of high levels of super oxide dismutase. Amla extract is one of the constituent in several herbal preparation like Chywanprash
Application in Cosmetics
• For revitalizing skin- Amla is used along with –Craica papaya (Papaya), Triticum aestivum (Wheat) and Prunus amygdalus (Almond). • For promotion of hair growth- Amla used in dry shampoo with- Phaseolus radiatus (Urad), Acacia concinna (Shikakai) and Trigonella foenumgraecum (Methi). • For Konark complexes like- Konark Fairgame, Konark Evergreen, Konark Spotless.
Research References
1. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (Revised New Edition 2002). 2. Standardization of Botanicals, Volume 2- By Dr. V. Rajpal. 3. www.pubmed.gov
Attachment

Amla COA.pdf (1528 views)