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Baheda

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Terminalia bellirica belonging to family Combertaceae is a large deciduous tree, 10-12 m or more high, commonly found in the plains and forests up to 900 m elevation. It is handsome tree found throughout the Indian forests and plains, southern area of china. Leaves are broadly elliptic and or elliptic-obviate, 10–20 cm long, 7–15 cm wide; both surfaces puberulous when young, shortly acuminate, glabrous and reticulate when old. Fruit nearly spherical to ovoid, the mature fruits grey or grayish brown with slightly wrinkled appearance and the taste is astringent.
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Botanical Names
Terminalia bellirica
Indian Names
Hindi : Baheda, Bahera Sanskrit : Vibhitaki, Karshah Gujarati : Baheda Marathi : Behada Bengali : Baheda Kannada : Taarekaayi Tamil : Tanri Malayalam : Thaanni Telugu : Bhutavasamu
Chemical Constituents
Terminalia bellirica fruit is unique for laxative and astringent activities, which are due to the presence of hydrolysable tannins like gallic acid, ellagic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, chebulagic acid, chebulaginic acid, hexahydroxydiphenic acid ester. Fruit part showed four lignans compounds termilignan, thannilignan, hydroxy-3', 4’ [methylenedioxy] flavan, and anolignan B responsible for anti-HIV, antimalarial and antifungal activity. Terminalia bellirica fruit contains an active principle called gallic acid. Seeds of Terminalia bellirica contain a new cardenolide, cannogenol 3-O-D-galactopyranosyl14.-O-L-rhamno-pyranoside and phospholipids showing cardio tonic activity. (2) Chemical substances of β-sitosterol, gallic acid, ethyle gallate, galloyl glucose, a new triterpene, the belleric acid and chebulagic acid have been isolated from fruits of T. bellerica. Terminalia oil contains 32.8% palmitic acid, 31.3% oleic acid, and 28.8% linoleic acid.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health
Pharmacology
Terminalia bellirica fruit is used as anti-diabetics, laxative, anticancer, and antimicrobial agent. It also possesses antioxidant property and hepato protective activity. Scientific studies have reveals that the plant possesses antioxidant activity, analgesic, antipyretic and ulcerogenic effect, hepato protective activity and antimicrobial activity (1). Polyphenolic constituents of Terminalia bellirica fruit are responsible for anti-oxidant, anti-stress and anti-diabetic activity. Fruit part was studied for laxative, adaptogen, antiviral, antimalarial, antimutagenic, dermatophytes i.e. antifungal, antioxidant, kapha, asthma, hyper cholesterimia and rejuvenating herb for lungs, throat, and eyes. Fruit part showed four lignans compounds which are responsible for anti-HIV, antimalarial and antifungal activity (2). Terminalia bellirica fruit has been evaluated as a promising agent against E. histolytica and a variety of bacteria associated with dysentery and diarrhea (3) T. belerica fruit extract also showed amoebicidal and bactericidal activity in vitro. It is more effective as a bactericidal agent as compared to the nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol.
Health Benefits
Terminalia bellirica is one of the oldest medicinal herb of India, is an ingredient of Indian ayurvedic drug ‘triphala’ used for the treatment of indigestion and liver disorders (4). It is routinely used as traditional medicine by tribal folk to get remedies from several ailments such as fever, cough, diarrhea, skin diseases and oral thrush. Fruit extract of T. bellirica produced fall in blood pressure of rats (5). It is also used in the hair product and skin care products. Oxidative stress produced by alloxan was found to be significantly lowered by the administration of T. bellirica extract .
Research References
1. Kumudhavalli M. V., Vyas M. and Jayakar B. Phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation of the plant fruit of Terminalia belerica Roxb. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACY & LIFE SCIENCES, IJPLS, 1(1):1-11 2. Jayaram D. B., Anil N. A., Subhash.C. M., D.P. Belsarea and Subodh.C. P., A Isolation and Characterization of hydrolysable tannins from leaf of Terminalia belerica Roxb. Jayaram D. Bade et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(10): 2410-2414 3.BHUSHAN P., K.K. BHUTANI., P.S. PATKI., S.V. DANGE., D.V. GORE., D.I. BOROLE., R.B. SHIROLKAR and P.V. PARANJPE CLINICAL EVALUATION OF TERMINALIA BELERICA IN DIARRHOEA Ancient Science of Life 1990, (10)2: 94 - 97 4. Anjana J., Monika B. and Sangeeta S. Protective effect of Terminalia belerica Roxb. and gallic acid against carbon tetrachloride induced damage in albino rats Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 109(2):214-218 5. K.M. Elizabeth ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA BELLERICA Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2005, 20(2):150-153 6. Sabu M. C. and Kuttan R. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Terminalia belerica. Roxb Indian J Exp Biol. 2009 47(4):270-275. 7. Maumita C., D.C. Baruah and D. Konwer Investigation of terminalia (Terminalia belerica Robx.) seed oil as prospective biodiesel source for North-East India Fuel Processing Technology 2009, 90(12):1435-1441