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Vavdinga

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Embelia ribes is commonly known as Vavdinga, it is a woody climbing shrub with slender branches, and elliptic lanceolate and dotted leaves. The fruit is globular and wrinkled, varying in color from dull red to nearly black, a short pedicel is often present; the pericarp is brittle enclosing a single seed covered with a membrane. It is widely distributed through out India.
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Botanical Names
Embelia ribes
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Jantughna Bengal : Vidang Gujarat : Vavading Hindi : Vayuvidanga Kannada : Vayuvidanga Malayalam : Vizhalari Marathi : Vavading Tamil : Vayuvilangam Telugu : Vayuvidangalu
Chemical Constituents
The whole plant, leaves, roots and seeds contains embelin as a main component where as fruit contains embelin, embolic acid and rapanone, sitosterol and daucosterol, embelinol, embeliaribyl ester, embelio, vilangin and christenbine. The plant contains embelin, quercitol, and fatty ingredient, an alkaloid christembine, a resinoid, tannins and minute qualities of a volatile oil. Embelin (2, 5-dihydroxy-3- undecyl-p-benzoquinone), is found to be the active principle of Embelia ribes and reported to possess a wide spectrum of biological activities. Chemical structure of embelin is having quite resemblance with that of natural Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinones) and the role of this is well defined in various biochemical protective mechanism (1). Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Embelia ribes resulted in the isolation of three new compounds identified as 3-(4″-hydroxyoctadecanyloxy)-p-quinonyl-5-methylene-8-(10-pentanyloxy)-p-quinone (embelinol), n-pentacosanyl-n-nonadeca-7′-en-9′-α-ol-1′-oate (embeliaribyl ester) and 1,2,4,5-tetrahydroxy 3-undecanyl benzene (embeliol) along with the known compound 2,5-dihydroxy-3-undecyl-2,5 cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione (embelin). Their structures have been established on the basis of spectral data analyses and chemical reactions.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Embelia ribes is a red-listed medicinal plant species that contains embelin, which has wide clinical applications. It has great demand in Ayurveda and the pharmaceutical industry. E. ribes, popularly known as ‘Vidanga’ or ‘Vavding’ in Ayurveda. It yields embelin, and other highly valued secondary metabolites, which have a wide range of clinical applications (3) Embelia ribes the whole plant and its other parts such as roots, tree, fruit and seeds are great source of embelin which is beneficial to treat number of health ailments. Embelin possesses anti diabetes, cardio protective, antibiotic and anti-tuberculosis properties. It can also be used to treat skin diseases and leprosy (3). Fruits of Embelia ribes are very beneficial as per its medicinal values. It is anti-helminthic, anti-tumour, anti-fertility, antibacterial, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant in nature. It can be used to treat bronchitis, mental disorders, and jaundice. Embelia ribes have been reported to have antioxidant and antidiabetic effects. In addition to these effects it also shows the neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of E. ribes fruits on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Health Benefits
Embelia ribes known commonly as vidanga is widely distributed throughout India. It is esteemed in Ayurveda as a powerful anti helminthic. The whole Embelia ribes plant is used as anti inflammatory drug to relieve rheumatism and fever. Anti hyperglycemic activity of decoction of E. ribes fruit has been observed in glucose feed albino rats (4). It is highly esteemed in Ayurveda as a powerful anthelmintic and also an important ingredient of a number of formulations. Ayurveda also describes vidanga as pungent and cures flatulence and colic (5). Embelia ribes also possesses wound healing property. Ethanol extract of the leaves of Embelia ribes and its isolated quinone compound embelin were screened for wound healing activity by excision, incision and dead space wound models on Swiss Albino Rats. Significant wound healing activity was observed in both ethanol crude extract and the constituent treated groups (6). During screening process of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases it has been observed that Embelia ribes also possesses antimicrobial activity (7). Embelia ribes have been reported to have antioxidant and anti diabetic effects. In addition to these effects study has also been investigated the neuro protective effect of ethanolic extract of E. ribes fruits on middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.
Research References
1. Radhakrishnan N., Gnanamani A. and Mandal A. B. A potential antibacterial agent Embelin, a natural benzoquinone extracted from Embelia ribes Research Article Biology and Medicine, Vol 3 (2) Special Issue: 1-7, 2011 2. Haq K., Ali M. and Siddiqui A. W. New compounds from the seeds of Embelia ribes Burm 2005, 60(1):69-71 3. Mhaskar M., Joshi S., Chavan B., Joglekar A., Barve N. and Patwardhan A. Status of Embelia ribes Burm f. (Vidanga), an important medicinal species of commerce from northern Western Ghats of India 2011,CURRENT SCIENCE, 100(4) 4. Uma B., Nazam A. and Islam F. Cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Embelia ribes Burm fruits against isoproterenol induced myocardial infarction in albino rats. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2008, 46:35-40 5. Uma Bhandari, Neeti Jain, and K. K. Pillai Further Studies on Antioxidant Potential and Protection of Pancreatic β-Cells by Embelia ribes in Experimental Diabetes Experimental Diabetes Research 2007 1-6 6. Kumara Swamy H. M., Krishna V., Shankarmurthy K., Abdul Rahiman B., Mankani K. L., Mahadevan K. M., Harish B. G. and Raja Naika H. Wound healing activity of embelin isolated from the ethanol extract of leaves of Embelia ribes Burm. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2007, 109(3):529-534 7. Phulan R. and Neeraj K.Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi Phytotherapy Research, 2004 18(8):670–673 8. Nazam Ansari M., Uma B., Islam F., Tripathi C. D. Evaluation of antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of ethanolic extract of Embelia ribes Burm in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rats Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology 2008, 22(3):305–314 9. Sanjesh G R., Vaidhun H. B. and Paras G. P. In-Vitro Anti fungal Screening of Embelia Ribes Plant Extract through EUCAST Method International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) 2010, 1(2):134-138