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Coriander

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Coriander is botanically named as Coriandrum sativum. Coriander is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae. Coriander is native to southern Europe and North Africa to southwestern Asia. It is a soft, hairless plant growing to 50 centimetres tall. The leaves are variable in shape, broadly lobed at the base of the plant, and slender and feathery higher on the flowering stems. The flowers are borne in small umbels, white or very pale pink, asymmetrical, only 1–3 mm long. The fruit is a globular dry schizocarp 3–5 mm diameter.
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Botanical Names
Coriandrum sativum
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Dhanyaka, Kustumburi, Dhania Hindi : Dhaniya Marathi : Dhane, Kothimbir Tamil : Kottha malli Bengali : Dhane pata Telgu : Daniyalu kotimira Kannada : Kottambri, Malayalam : Kottamalli, malli,
Chemical Constituents
In Coriander leaves quercetin, kaempferol and acacetin flavanoids were identified. The phenolic acids identified were vanillic acid, ferulic acid (cis and Trans form) and p-coumaric acid. Major components in the coriander oil isolated from coriander fruit include linalool and some other oxygenated monoterpenes and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Scientific research regarding coriander oil reported detection of α-pinene, limonene, β-phellandrene, eucalyptol, linalool, borneol, β- caryophyllene, citronellol, geraniol, thymol, linalyl acetate, geranyl acetate, caryophyllene oxide, elemol and methyl heptenol in seed oil by Thin Layer Chromatography. In the ripe fruits, the content of essential oil is comparably low .
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Coriandrum sativum possesses various beneficial medicinal activities. It is anti-diabetic, anxiolytic, hypolipidemic, diuretic, antibacterial, antioxidant and anti cancer in action. Chemicals derived from coriander leaves were found to have antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis and their bactericidal action comes in part from the ability to act as nonionic surfactant (2). Coriander has been also used as a folk medicine for the relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iran. The aqueous extract of Coriandrum sativum seed has anxiolytic effect and may have potential sedative and muscle relaxant effects. Trials in experimental animals have supported its use as an anxiolytic (3). Coriander seeds are also used in traditional Indian medicine as diuretic. Coriander has been documented as a traditional treatment for diabetes. A study on experimental animal found that coriander extract had both insulin-releasing and insulin-like activity (4). Coriandrum sativum seeds also possesses hypolipidemic activity. The effect of the administration of Coriandrum sativum seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in experimental animals. The levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides decreased significantly in the tissues of the animals of the experimental group which received coriander seeds (5). The antimutagenic activity of coriander juice against the mutagenic activity of 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, m-phenylenediamine and 2-aminofluorene was investigated using the Ames reversion mutagenicity assay. Aqueous crude coriander juice significantly decreased the mutagenicity of metabolized aromatic amines. The concentration of coriander juice was neither toxic nor mutagenic .
Health Benefits
The coriander seeds are mainly responsible for the medical use of coriander and have been used as a remedy for indigestion, against worms, rheumatism and pain in the joints. Among medicinal plants, Coriandrum sativum has been recommended for relief of anxiety and insomnia in Iranian folk medicine. Extracts of different parts from leaves and seeds of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) and coriander oil were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Coriander leaves showed stronger antioxidant activity than the seeds. In conclusion, addition of coriander to food will increase the antioxidant content and may have potential as a natural antioxidant and thus inhibit unwanted oxidation processes (7, 8). Coriander seeds were found in a study on experimental animals have a significant hypolipidemic effect, resulting in lowering of levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing levels of high-density lipoprotein (9). A significant antibacterial activity was also shown by C. sativum essential oil against phyto pathogenic bacterial species. Thus essential oils may be useful as natural bactericides for the control of bacterial diseases of plants and for seed treatment, in particular, in organic agriculture. The significant antibacterial activity of essential oils to the bacterial pathogens of mushrooms appears promising. Coriander leaves are rich in quercetin, can be an important food source for the prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. Quercetin and other flavonoids have been shown to modify eicosanoid biosynthesis and protect low density lipoprotein (LDL) from oxidation and promote relaxation of cardiovascular system.
Research References
1. Nazrul I. B., Jaripa B. and Mahbuba S. Chemical composition of leaf and seed essential oil of Coriandrum sativum L. from Bangladesh Bangladesh J Pharmacol 2009; 4:150-153 2. Isao K., Ken-ichi F., Aya K., Ken-ichi N. and Tetsuya O. Antibacterial Activity of Coriander Volatile Compounds against Salmonella choleraesuis J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52(11): 3329–3332 3. Masoumeh E., Mohammad K. and Maryam F. A. Coriandrum sativum: evaluation of its anxiolytic effect in the elevated plus-maze Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005, 96(3):365-370 4. ALAM K., MAHPARA S., MOHAMMAD M. A. K., KHAN N. K., RICHARD A. A. Cinnamon Improves Glucose and Lipids of People with Type 2 Diabetes C l i n i c a l C a r e / E d u c a t i o n / N u t r i t i o n DIABETES CARE, 2003, 26(12):3215-3219 5. V. Chithra and S. Leelamma Hypolipidemic effect of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) 51(2):167-172 6. Josefina C. E., Sandra G. A., Rafael V. and Jesús J. Antimutagenicity of coriander (Coriandrum sativum) juice on the mutagenesis produced by plant metabolites of aromatic amines Toxicology Letters 2004, 153(2):283-292 7. Helle W., Anne B. S. and Karl E. M. Antioxidant activity in extracts from coriander Food Chemistry 2004 88(2):293-297 8. Mohamed F. R., Lothar W. K. and Jörg-T. Mörsel Radical Scavenging Activity of Black Cumin (Nigella sativa L.), Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.), and Niger (Guizotia abyssinica Cass.) Crude Seed Oils and Oil Fractions J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51 (24): 6961–6969 9. Mohamed F. R., Mohamed M. A. A. and Ahmed E. A. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil improves plasma lipid profile in rats fed a diet containing cholesterol European Food Research and Technology 227(4):1173-1182 10. Oils P. L. C., NICOLA S. I., ADRIANA D. M., FRANCESCO C. AND FELICE S. Antibacterial Activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) Essential 7862 J. Agric. Food Chem. 2004, 52:7862-7866 11. Peter Y.Y. and David D. Kitts Studies on the dual antioxidant and antibacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts Food Chemistry 2006, 97(3):505-515 12. Pietro L. C., Nicola S. I., Adriana D. M., Francesco C. and Felice S. Antibacterial Activity of Coriandrum sativum L. and Foeniculum vulgare Miller Var. vulgare (Miller) Essential Oils J. Agric. Food Chem., 2004, 52 (26):7862–7866 13.Vanisha S. N., Mammen D. and Parul G. CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYPHENOLS FROM CORIANDER LEAVES (CORIANDRUM SATIVUM), RED AMARANTHUS (A. PANICULATUS) AND GREEN AMARANTHUS (A. FRUMENTACEUS) USING PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY: AND THEIR HEALTH IMPLICATIONS Journal of Herbal Medicine and Toxicology, 2010, 4 (1):173-177