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Aegle marmelos is generally called as Bael. It is a species of tree native to India. It is present throughout Southeast Asia as a naturalized species. It belongs to the family Rutaceae and subfamily Aurantioideae. It is the only member of the monotypic genus Aegle. It is a mid-sized, slender, aromatic, armed, gum-bearing tree growing up to 18 meters tall.

Listing Details

Botanical Names
Aegle marmelos
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Bilva, Shivaphala, Adhararuha, Sivadrumah, Tripatra Hindi : Bel Marathi : Bel Tamil : Vilvam Malayalam : Vilvam Telugu : Sandiliyamu Kannada : Bilvapatre Bengali : Bel Gujarati : Bili
Chemical Constituents
The most important ingredients present in plant communities turn out to be alkaloids, terpenoids, steroids, phenols glycosides and tannins. Various chemical constituents mainly alkaloids, coumarins and steroids have been isolated and identified from different parts of Aegle marmelos tree such as leaves, bark and fruit. Several chemical constituents have been isolated and from various parts of the bael tree. These include alkaloids, coumarins and steroids. The leaves contain skimianinc, sterol and aegelin. The active constituent of the fruit is marmorosin, which is identical to imperatorin. Older coumarins contained in the fruits are alto imperatorin and B sitosterol. Roots of the tree have been found to contain psoralin, xanthotoxin, scopoletin and tembamide. The phytochemical screening of the crude extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and steroids (1). The bael fruit is highly nutritious. It contains water, protein, fat, minerals, carbohydrates, carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin. No other fruit has such a high content of riboflavin. Marmelosin is most probably the therapeutic active principle of bael fruits. In bael fruit, coumarins like alloimperatorin, imperatorin, and B-sitosterol have been identified.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
egle marmelos commonly known as Bael, belonging to the family Rutaceae has been widely used in indigenous systems of Indian medicine due to its various medicinal properties. The leaves of Bael are astringent, laxative, and expectorant in action. Its leaves are useful in treatment of ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, cataract, diabetes, diarrhoea, dysentery, and asthmatic complications. Fresh aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of Aegle marmelos were reported to have a cardio tonic effects in mammals (3). Aegle marmelos leaves are also used in case of diabetes mellitus. Leaves extract has been reported to regenerate damaged pancreatic beta cells in diabetic rats and increased the activities of peroxidase in the liver tissues of Isoproterenol treated rats. An aqueous decoction of the leaves has been shown to possess a significant hypoglycemic effect (4, 5). Aegle marmelos leaf extract was found to be a potential antioxidant drug, which reduces the blood sugar level in alloxan induced diabetic rats. It was found to be as effective as insulin in the restoration of blood glucose and body weight to normal levels on hyperglycemic state. The greatest medicinal value, however, has been attributed to its fruit and the unripe fruit is said to be an excellent remedy for diarrhea.
Health Benefits
Aegle marmelos, commonly known as bael, is a spiny tree belonging to the family Rutaceae. The leaves, roots, bark, seeds and fruits of A. marmelos are edible. The medicinal properties of this plant have been described in the Ayurveda. In fact, as per Charaka, no drug has been longer or better known or appreciated by the inhabitants of India than the bael. The leaves of bael are useful in ophthalmia, deafness, and catarrh, diabetes. The unripe fruits are bitter, acrid, sour, astringent, a digestive and stomachic and are useful in diarrhea and dysentery. The roots of A. marmelos are one of the ingredients of dashamula, a medicine commonly used by Ayurvedic practitioners. Fresh aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of A. marmelos are reported to have a cardiotonic effect, like digitalis, and to decrease the requirement for circulatory stimulants. An aqueous decoction of the leaves has been shown to possess a significant hypoglycemic effect (7, 8). Bael leaves are also antibacterial and antifungal in action. The antifungal activity of essential oil isolated from the leaves of bael (Aegle marmelos (L.) has been evaluated using spore germination assay.
Research References
1. Brijesh S., Poonam D., Pundarikakshudu T., Noshir A. and Tannaz B. Studies on the antidiarrhoeal activity of Aegle marmelos unripe fruit: Validating its traditional usage BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9(47):1-12 2. Susanta K. R. and Singh R. N Bael fruit (Aegle marmelos)- A potential fruit for processing. Economic Botany 1979, 33(2):203-212 3. Vinodhini S., Malairajan S. and Hazeena B. The Hepatoprotective Effect of Bael Leaves (Aegle Marmelos) in Alcohol Induced Liver Injury in Albino Rats International Journal of Science & Technology 2007, 2(2):83-92 4. M. C. SABU AND RAMADASAN K. ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH ITS ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48 (1): 81–88 5. SHARMILA U., KSHAMA K. S., SUNEETHA G., BALACHANDRA N. M. AND SUBRAMANYA U. A STUDY OF HYPOGLYCEMIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF AEGLE MARMELOS IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004 48 (4): 476–480 6. Ganesh C. J., Ponemone V. and Manjeshwar S. B. Evaluation of the radioprotective effect of Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa in cultured human peripheral blood lymphocytes exposed to different doses of g-radiation: a micronucleus study Mutagenesis 2003 18(4): 387-393 7. S. RAJAN1, M. GOKILA1, P. JENCY, P. BRINDHA, R. K. SUJATHA1 ANTIOXIDANT AND PHYTOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF AEGLE MARMELOS FRUIT PULP International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research 2011 3(2):65-70 8. Achyut N. K., Rajesh K. G., Santosh K. S., Sandhya D. and Geeta W. Hypoglycemic and antihyperglycemic activity of Aegle marmelos seed extract in normal and diabetic rats Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2006 107(3):374-379 9. Rana B. K., Singh U. P. and Taneja V., Antifungal activity and kinetics of inhibition by essential oil isolated from leaves of Aegle marmelos Journal of Ethnopharmacology 1997 57(1):29-34 10. N. Kamalakkannan and P. Stanely Mainzen Prince Hypoglycaemic effect of water extracts of Aegle marmelos fruits in streptozotocin diabetic rats Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2003 87(2-3):207-210