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Grape Fruit

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Grapefruit is botanically named as Citrus paradisi, is a subtropical citrus tree belongs to genus Citrus and family Rutaceae. These evergreen trees are usually found at around 5–6 metres tall. The leaves are dark green, long up to 150 mm and thin. It produces 5 cm white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and largely an oblate spheroid; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm.
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Botanical Names
Citrus paradisi
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Madhukarktikum Hindi : Chakotra Marathi : Papanas Gujarati : Chakotra Telugu : Pampara Bengali : Chakotra Malayalam : Pamparamasan
Chemical Constituents
Grapefruit is an excellent source of many nutrients and phytochemicals. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C, contains the fiber pectin, and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene. It contains tocopherols, citric acid and ascorbic acid. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamins such as thiamine, riboflavin, and pantothenic acid. It also provides trace elements like magnesium, phosphorous, potassium, zinc, iron, and calcium (1). Active components found in grape fruit are apigenin, hesperidin, limonin, naringin, naringenin, and nobiletin. Grapefruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds. The red-fleshed varieties contain flavonoids, limonoids and their glucosides, vitamin C, folic acid, carotenoids (e.g. lycopene and beta-carotene), coumarin-related compounds (e.g. auraptene), soluble fiber and potassium (2). The volatile constituents of essential oils of grapefruit (Citrus paradise) were determined by GC and GC−MS. Monoterpene hydrocarbons constituted 93.3% in the oils, with limonene, α-terpinene, and α-pinene as the main compounds. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons constituted 0.4% in oil. The notable compounds were β-caryophyllene, α-cubebene, and (E, E)-α-farnesene. Oxygenated compounds constituted 4.2 of the grapefruit. Heptyl acetate, octanal, decanal, citronellal, and (Z)-carvone were also preset about 0.1−0.5%. Perillene, (E)-carveol, and perillyl acetate occurred in the grapefruit. Nootkatone, α- and β-sinensal, methyl-N-methylanthranilate, and (Z,E)-farnesol were prominent in oils.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Grapefruit possesses medicinal properties such as antibacterial, anticancer, anti cholesterol, anti inflammatory, antirheumatic, and anti asthmatic (4). Grapefruit is an excellent source of vitamin C, a vitamin that helps to support the immune system, prevents the free radical damage that triggers the inflammatory cascade. Thus it is also associated with reduced severity of inflammatory conditions, such as asthma, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis (5). Phytonutrients in grapefruit called limonoids possesses anticancer activity. It inhibits tumor formation by promoting the formation of glutathione-S-transferase, a detoxifying enzyme. In animal studies and laboratory tests with human cells, limonoids have been shown to help fight cancers of the mouth, skin, lung, breast, stomach and colon. Grapefruit is beneficial to promoting cardiovascular health. Grapefruit contains pectin, a form of soluble fiber that has been shown in animal studies to slow down the progression of atherosclerosis.
Health Benefits
Grapefruit is an excellent source of many nutrients and phyto chemicals that contribute to a healthy diet. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C, the fiber pectin and it is also a good source of beneficial antioxidant lycopene. Studies have shown that grapefruit helps to lower the cholesterol (7). Seeds of grape fruit also have antioxidant properties. Grapefruit contains large quantities of a simple polyamine called spermidine, which may be related to aging. It is known to be necessary for cell growth and maturation, and as cells age their level of spermidine is known to fall. Studies have shown that adding spermidine to the diet of mice decreased molecular markers of aging, and when human immune cells were cultured in a medium containing spermidine, they lived longer. Grapefruit seed extract has been claimed to have strong antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Grape fruit possesses anticancer activities. Grapefruits are a rich source of bioactive compounds which may serve as cancer chemo preventive agents. Consumption of grapefruit or limonin may help to suppress colon cancer development. It contains a flavonoid naringenin which helps to repair damaged DNA in human prostate cancer cells.
Application in Cosmetics
Grapefruit is typically a good source of phyto nutrients but it is also beneficial for skin. Grape fruit is a good source of antioxidants which is helpful for body health as well as skin care (11). Grapefruit contain natural exfoliates. Grapefruit promote smoother and younger looking skin. Grapefruit also boosts collagen production, calms the skin and increases elasticity. As it contains high amount of antioxidants it gives protection against free radical damage antioxidants are very beneficial for skin health. Grapefruit is rich in citric acid, an alpha hydroxy acid. Grapefruit extract is a powerful exfoliator and will loosen dead skin cells and exfoliate dry skin. Grapefruit helps to fight with freckles, wrinkles and lightens the pigmentation. It is beneficial for oily skin. Grapefruit seeds possess antibacterial and antifungal activities. Thus it can be used for many types of external skin conditions (12). Grapefruit seed extract is effective against fungal infections of the feet, nails and skin. Grapefruit seed extract is a very good facial cleanser for general cleaning of oily skin and is very helpful in fighting acne infections.
Research References
1. Hasim K. Sugars, organic acids, phenolic compositions and antioxidant activity of Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) cultivars grown in Turkey Industrial Crops and Products 2010 32(3):269-274 2. Simon M. N., Hiroshi K., Paul N. K., and Masayoshi S. Volatile Constituents of Redblush Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) and Pummelo (Citrus grandis) Peel Essential Oils from Kenya J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005, 53 (25), pp 9790–9794 3. Misharina T. A., and Samusenko A. L. Antioxidant properties of essential oils from lemon, grapefruit, coriander, clove, and their mixtures. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 2008 44(4):482-486 4. 10. Negi P. and Jayaprakasha G. Antibacterial activity of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peel extracts European Food Research and Technology 213(6):484-487 5. Michal H. O., Stark A. H., and Zecharia M. Grapefruit and Oroblanco Enhance Hepatic Detoxification Enzymes in Rats: Possible Role in Protection against Chemical Carcinogenesis J. Agric. Food Chem., 2005 53 (5): 1828–1832 6. Jairam V., Tety L., Bhimanagouda S.P., Stella S.T., Mary E. M., Leonard M.P., Robert S.C., Joanne R.L. and Nancy D.T., Suppression of colon carcinogenesis by bioactive compounds in grapefruit Carcinogenesis 2006 27(6):1257–1265 7. SHELA G., ABRAHAM C., IMANUEL L., HENRY T. L., DEJIAN H., HANNA L.,MARIA L., ZEV T., ELENA K., SHENGBAO F. AND SIMON T. Red Grapefruit Positively Influences Serum Triglyceride Level in Patients Suffering from Coronary Atherosclerosis: Studies in Vitro and in Humans J. Agric. Food Chem. 2006, 54:1887-1892 8. Oreagba A. I., Awodele O., Olayemi S. O., Mabadeje A. F. B., and Ashorobi Prpphylactic Effect of Grapefruit Juice Against Plasmodium berghei berghei Infection in Mice International Journal of Pharmacology 2008 4(1):60-63 9. Alvarez G. I., Mojica R., Madrigal B. E., Camacho C. R., Escobar G. D., and Espinosa A. The antigenotoxic effects of grapefruit juice on the damage induced by benzo(a)pyrene and evaluation of its interaction with hepatic and intestinal Cytochrome P450 (Cyp)1a1 Food and Chemical Toxicology 2011 49(4): 807-811 10. Gao K., Henning S. M., Niu Y., Youssefian A. A., Seeram N. P., Xu A., and Heber D. The citrus flavonoid naringenin stimulates DNA repair in prostate cancer cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2006 17(2):89-95 11. Yuangang Z., Huimin Y., Liang L., Yujie F., Thomas E., Xia L., and Nan W.Activities of Ten Essential Oils towards Propionibacterium acnes and PC-3, A-549 and MCF-7 Cancer Cells Molecules 2010, (15):3200-3210 12. Heggers J. P., Cottingham J., Gusman J., Reagor L., McCoy L., Carino E., Cox R., and Zhao J. G. The effectiveness of processed grapefruit-seed extract as an antibacterial agent: II. Mechanism of action and in vitro toxicity J Altern Complement Med. 2002 8(3):333-40 13. Wentao X., Wei Q., Kunlun H., Feng G., Jiajia Y., Heng Z. and YunBo L. Antibacterial effect of Grapefruit Seed Extract on food-borne pathogens and its application in the preservation of minimally processed vegetables Post harvest Biology and Technology 2007 45(1):126-133