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Jasmine

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Jasminum sambac is a species belongs to the family Oleaceae and genus Jasminum. Jasminum sambac is native to southwestern, southern, and southeastern Asia. It is the national flower of the Philippines, where it is known as Sampaguita. It is an evergreen vine or shrub reaching up to 1-3 m tall. The leaves are ovate. They are strongly scented, with a white corolla 2-3 cm diameter with 5-9 lobes.
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Botanical Names
Jasminum sambac
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Mallika Hindi : Mogra Marathi : Mogra Telugu : Mallepuvvu Tamil : Mallikaipu Kannada : dundu Mallige
Chemical Constituents
Jasmines are an important group of flowering plants. They are widely cultivated and esteemed for there attractive fragrant flowers. The leaves contain resin, salicylic acid, and an alkaloid named jasmine. The flowers of Jasminum sambac are noted for their fresh and delicate pleasant fragrance. The jasmine flower's chemical structure is similar to other types of jasmine, containing fats, iron, glucosides, tannins and calcium oxalate. In 2004, Chinese scientists studying jasmine roots discovered several new chemical compounds, including dotriacontanoic acid, dotriacontanol, oleanolic acid, daucosterol and hesperidin. Tannins, fats, silicon, iron, glucosides, calcium oxalate, essential oil are present in the flowers of Jasminum sambac Phytochemical study also yielded alkaloids, glycoside, flavanoid, terpines, tannin, resin and salicylic acid. Jasminum sambac roots possesses chemical components such as Dotriacontanoic acid, dotriacontanol, oleanolic acid, daucosterol and hesperidin (1). Leaves of Jasminum sambac contain the secoiridoid glycosides, jasminin, quercitrin, iso quercitrin, rutin, quercitrin 3-dirhamnoglycoside, kaempferol 3-rhamnoglycoside, mannitol, alpha amyrin, beta sitosterol, and an iridoid glycoside, sambacin(2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Different parts of the plant such as the leaf, stem, bark, and roots are very useful and important in pharmaceutical industries. Jasminum sambac possesses many beneficial medicinal properties such as thermogenic, aphrodisiac, antiseptic, emollient, anti helminthes, tonic, ulcerative stomatitis, skin diseases (3). It is used for the treatment of skin diseases, ulcers and fever. Pharmacological activities of the plant reported so far are spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, antioxidant, antiulcer, chemoprotective, woundhealing and anti-acne activity. Jasminum sambac also possesses antibacterial and antifungal activities. It is highly effective against Alternaria sp. causes foot infection in cancer patients (4). Leaves and flowers of Jasminum sambac possesses antipyretic and decongestant activity where as its roots are analgesic in action.
Health Benefits
In India, Jasmine (Jasminum sambac) is extensively used in manufacturing high grade aromatherapy oils. Juices from the leaves of J. sambac are applied to treat ulcers, remove corns, effecting in expelling worms, regulating menstrual flow, to clean kidney waste, inflamed and blood-shot eyes. The leaves are chewed and used in the treatment of ulcerations of the mouth (5). Jasmine oil is also beneficial in treating many health problems. In aromatherapy, the jasmine oil is recommended for any kind of physical pain. Even more, it is a powerful antiseptic, sedative and tonic recommended for breathing difficulties, coughing and nervous debility. Jasmine flower extracts as well as Jasminum sambac oils possesses anti bacterial and anti septic properties. It is a very good anti septic and disinfectant (6).
Application in Cosmetics
The preliminary phyotochemical study of the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic callus extracts of jasmine focused on two species of Jasminum, J. grandiflorum and J. sambac showed that the plants can be used as medicine for skin disorders. As jasminum sambac possesses antibacterial property it can be use treat acne and skin infections (7). Jasmine oil possesses antimicrobial and antifungal properties thus can be used in skin infections. It is also used in aromatherapy to lift up the mood.
Research References
1. Zhang Z. F., Bian B. L., Yang J. and Tian X. F. Studies on chemical constitutents in roots of Jasminum sambac Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2004 29(3):237-239 2. C. P. Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary (344-345) 3. Fatouma A., Prosper E., François E., Nabil M., Adwa A., Samatar D., Louis-Clément O., Ismael B. and Mamoudou D. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and methanol extract of Jasminum sambac from Djibouti African Journal of Plant Science 2010 4(3):038-043. 4. Mishra A., Shrivastava A. and Jain S. K. Screening of Some Plant Extracts against Alternaria sp. Isolated from Foot Infections in Cancer Patients International Journal of PharmTech Research 2010 2(2):1165-1170 5. C. C. Rath, S. Devi, S. K. Dash, and R. K. Mishra Antibacterial Potential Assessment of Jasmine Essential Oil Against E. Coli Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 70(2): 238–241. 6. Joy P. and Raja D. P. "Anti-Bacterial Activity Studies of Jasminum grandiflorum and Jasminum sambac," Ethnobotanical Leaflets: 2008 1(59) 7. Reema Al-H. and Adel M. M. Microbial Growth and Quorum Sensing Antagonist Activities of Herbal Plants Extracts Molecules 2009, 14:3425-3435