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Orange Peel

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The fruit of Citrus aurantium is called an orange, specifically the sweet orange. The orange is a hybrid of ancient cultivated origin, possibly between pomelo (Citrus maxima) and mandarin (Citrus reticulata). It is a small flowering tree growing to about 10 m tall with evergreen leaves, which are arranged alternately, of ovate shape with crenulate margins and 4–10 cm long. Oranges originated in Southeast Asia..
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Botanical Names
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Indian Names
Sanskrit : Naranga Marathi : Santra Hindi : Narangi Bengali : Kamala Leboo Tamil : Kodai aaranj Telugu : Kamala Pandu Kannada : Kittale
Chemical Constituents
Oranges are an excellent source of vitamin C. They are also a very good source of dietary fiber. In addition, oranges are a good source of B vitamins including vitamin B1 and folate as well as vitamin A, calcium and potassium. The main component in an orange peel is d-limonene. Orange peel contains a unique flavonoid called hesperidin. Other chemicals found in the orange peel include N-methyltyramine, flavones, synephrine, carotenoids aldehydes, coumarins, bitters, vitamin C and octaopamine. Essential oil is also found in orange peel extracts such as limonene, pinene, linalol, and humulene (2). The chemical composition of the essential oil obtained from the peel of Bingtang sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) was analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Twenty-seven components were identified (3). The monoterpenes and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons with 96.03% (w/w) of the total oil were the principal compound groups. Among which, limonene was observed dominant (77.49%), followed by myrcene (6.27%), -farnesene (3.64%), -terpinene (3.34%), -pinene (1.49%), sabinene (1.29%) and other minor components.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Orange peel possess many beneficial properties such as antibacterial, antifungal, aromatic, carminative, digestive tonic, expectorant, sedative (5). The green or unripe orange peel is a cholagogue and carminative. Orange peel has more phytonutrients and flavonoids than the inner pulp, endowing it with anti-inflammatory properties that can aid digestion and relieve gastrointestinal problems such as acidity, heartburn, flatulence, diarrhea and the digestion of fatty foods. Orange peel is rich in vitamins A and C, both of which are natural antioxidants that boost the overall health of the immune system and fight infection, colds and flu (6). The flavonoid hesperidin found in orange peels has anti-inflammatory properties that, when ingested, can cure certain types of breast cancer and inhibit bone loss.
Health Benefits
Many people when eat a juicy orange they typically toss away the peel, unaware of its health properties. Orange peel can aid digestion, reduce infection, lower cholesterol and fight skin and breast cancer. Orange peel contains a unique flavonoid called hesperidin. Hesperidin helps to lower LDL cholesterol, lower triglycerides (fats found in the blood) and reduces the risk of heart disease. An added benefit is in normalizing blood pressure. Studies also show that hesperidin is helpful in reducing bone loss, acts as an anti-inflammatory and is good for fighting some types of cancer, especially breast cancer (8). Orange peels also contain natural oil which is utilized by the body to help keep the elasticity of veins and arteries. The oil will help keep your skin strong, elastic and beautiful. Orange peel is a good source of pectin. Pectin is a natural fiber which the body utilizes to control blood sugar, reducing the immediate effect of blood sugar rising rapidly. This makes it ideal for diabetics. Pectin also works to lower bad cholesterol levels, helping to scrub cholesterol plaque from artery walls. Pectin also acts as a natural appetite suppressant, reducing the desire to overeat. Additionally, pectin helps promote the production of healthy bacteria in the intestines.
Application in Cosmetics
Many beauty products contain orange peel as an ingredient. Orange peels help in naturally cleansing the face along with helping in preventing pimples and acne (10). They have beneficial antioxidants that help in preventing your skin from premature aging and wrinkling. Thus, an orange peel face mask helps in providing a natural glow and radiance on skin. Addition of dry powder of orange peels to bathing water makes the skin to glow naturally. Orange peel also contains d-limonene, which serves as shield toward ultraviolet rays, making it an effective natural sunscreen and skin cancer preventative when rubbed onto the skin directly or added to skin oils and lotions.
Research References
1. Distribution of Volatile Compounds in the Pulp, Cloud, and Serum of Freshly Squeezed Orange Juice Pierre Brat, Barbara Rega, Pascaline Alter, Max Reynes, and Jean-Marc Brillouet Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 2003 51 (11), 3442-3447. 2. Stuart, G.R., D. Lopes, and J.V. Oliveira, Current Investigations on Orange Peel Oil Fractionation, Perfum. Flavor. 26:8–15 (2001) . 3. Uedo N, Tatsuta M, Iishi H, et al. Inhibition by D-limonene of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N’-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats. Cancer Lett. 1999;137:131- 4. Budich, M., S. Heilig, T. Wesse, V. Leibkuchler, and G. Brunner, Countercurrent Deterpenation of Citrus Oils with Supercritical CO2, J. Supercrit. Fluids 14:105–114 (1999). 5. Ghaly, M.F., Shalaby, M.A., Shash, S.M., 1 2 3 3Baraka, D.M. and 3Aly, R.A. Control of Bacterial Contamination of Bed Sores by Using Some Natural Extracts Journal of Applied Sciences Research, 2010. 6(1): 70-80, 6. S. Ersus and M. Cam Determination of organic acids, total phenolic content, and antioxidant capacity of sour Citrus aurantium fruits. 7. Ashebir M. and Ashenati M. (!999) Assessment of the Antibacterial activity of some Traditional Medicinal Plants on some Foodborne Pathogen. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development 13:211-216 8. Vora, J.D., R.F. Matthews, P.G. Crandall, and R. Cook, Preparation and Chemical Composition of Orange Oil Concentrates, J. Food Sci. 48:1197–1199 (1983). 9. Lifshitz, A., Y. Stepak, and I. Elroy, Objective Evaluation of the Degree of Concentration of Citrus Oils, Perfum. Essent. Oil Rec. 60:157–165 (1969). 10. Nakaizumi A, Baba M, Uehara H, Iishi H, Tatsuta M. d-Limonene inhibits N-nitrosobis (2-oxopropyl)amine induced hamster pancreatic carcinogenesis. Cancer Lett. 1997;117:99-103.