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Jamun seed

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Jamun tree is botanically named as Eugenia jambolana, it is an evergreen tropical tree in the flowering plant family Myrtaceae and genus Syzygium. It is native to Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Indonesia. It is a fairly fast growing species; it can reach heights of up to 30 m and can live more than 100 years. Scientific synonyms include Syzygium jambolanum, Eugenia cumini and Eugenia jambolana.
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Botanical Names
Eugenia jambolana
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Jambu Hindi : Badijamun Marathi : Jambhool Gujarati : Jambu Tamil : Arugadam Telugu : Jambuva Bengali : Kalojam
Chemical Constituents
The chemical constituents of seeds of Eugenia jambolana are gallic acid, ellagic acid, corilagin, ellagitannins, isoquercetin, quercetin, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, guaicol, resorcinaldimethyl ether, lignaglucoside, veratrol, B sitosterol, palmitic acid etc. Fruits contain Eugenia triterpenoids, oleonolic acid, malic acid, glucose, gallic acid etc (1). Two acylated flavonol glycosides and 15 known polyphenols have been isolated and identified from the leaves of Eugenca jambolana. Twenty-nine compounds, representing more than 99% of the volatile mixture, were identified. trans-Ocimene, cis-Ocimene, β-myrcene and α-terpineol were found to be the major compounds. Three esters, dihydrocarvyl acetate, geranyl butyrate and terpinyl valerate, were identified and may be responsible for the characteristic flavour of the jamun fruit.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
E. jambolana seeds were reported to have hypoglycemia, anti-inflammatory, neuro psychopharmacological, anti- bacterial, anti-HIV and anti-diarrhoeal effects. The fresh seeds are most effective in diabetes as they quickly reduce sugar in urine reported the hypoglycemic response of seed and pulp extract on diabetic mice. Recently, the anti-diabetic and antioxidant property of E. jambolana seed kernels on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats has been reported (3). Eugenia jambolana is also reported to have hypolipedemic effect; it reduces blood cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids. This effect was reported to be due to the presence of flavonoides, saponins and glycoside in the extract which in turn decreased the activity of enzyme 3-HMG Co-A reductase in liver, responsible for cholesterol biosynthesis (4). Abnormalities in lipid profile are one of the most common complications in diabetes mellitus, which is found in about 40% of diabetics. In a scientific study, anti-hyper lipidemic efficacy of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and the efficacy was compared with standard hypoglycemic drug, glibenclamide. The bark of this plant possesses astringent, antihelmenthic, antipyretic, antidysentric activities and useful in certain urinary disorders.
Health Benefits
Though the various parts of jamun tree attain the pharmaceutical properties. Jamun seeds are mainly used to treat diabetics. Traditionally jamun fruits and seeds are used to treat diabetes, pharyngitis, spleenopathy, urethrorrhea and ringworm infection. Oral administration of dried alcoholic extracts of the seeds to diabetic patients was found to reduce the level of blood sugar and glycosuria in clinical trials (6). A decoction of the bark and powdered seeds is believed to be very useful in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and dyspepsia. Bark of this plant can also be used to treat excessive thirst, urinary disorders, hemorrhages and vaginal discharges (5, 7). The connection between jamun and diabetes is well known. Euginia jambolana seed apart from hypoglycemic activity has been reported to have anti-inflammatory, neuropsycho-pharmacological, antibacterial, anti-HIV and anti diarrhoeal effects. Jamun seed kernel decreased the oxidative stress in diabetic rats, which in turn may be due to its hypoglycemic property.
Research References
1. Kasiappan R., Subbaih R. and Sorimuthu S. Antihyperlipidemic effect of Eugenia jambolana seed kernel on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats Food and Chemical Toxicology 2005 43(9):1433-1439 2. Vijayanand P., Jagan M. and Narasimham P. Volatile flavour components of jamun fruit (Syzygium cumini L) Flavour and Fragrance Journal 2001 16(1):47–49. 3. Gohil T., Pathak N., Jivani N., Devmurari V. and Patel J. Treatment with extracts of Eugenia jambolana seed and Aegle marmelos leaf extracts prevents hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in alloxan induced diabetic rats African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 4(5), pp. 270-275, May 2010 4. ADITI C., MOHAN KUMAR M., BHAWANI G., HARISH C., AND GOEL R. K. EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF EUGENIA JAMBOLANA SEEDS ON GASTRIC ULCERATION AND SECRETION IN RATS Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2007, 51 (2):131–140 5. Sisodia S. S. and Bhatnagar M. Hepatoprotective activity of Eugenia jambolana Lam. in carbon tetrachloride treated rats 2009 Indian Journal of Pharmacology 41(1):23-27