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Mango

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Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. Mango is a fruit which is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent belonging to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The tree is large and tall (up to 40 m) with a rounded canopy or foliage with leathery leaves and big fleshy edible drupes as fruit (Neon, 1984). The fruits are eaten, and used for juice and wine production.
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Botanical Names
Mangifera indica
Indian Names
Hindi : Aam Sanskrit : Amrah Hindi : Aam Marathi : Amba Tamil : Mamaram Telgu : Mamidi Malayalam : Mavu Kannada : Mavu
Chemical Constituents
Mango fruit is rich in a variety of phytochemicals and nutrients. The fruit contains dietary fiber, vitamin C, diverse polyphenols and provitamin A carotenoids. The mango fruit composed of antioxidant vitamins A, C and E compose 25%, 76% and 9% respectively. Vitamin B6 , vitamin K, other B vitamins and essential nutrients, such as potassium, copper and 17 amino acids are found at good levels in mango. Mango peel and pulp contain other phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants carotenoids, polyphenols and omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Mango peel contains pigments that have antioxidant properties, including carotenoids, such as the provitamin A compound, beta-carotene, lutein alpha-carotene, polyphenols such as quercetin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid, catechins, tannins, and the unique mango xanthonoid, mangiferin, any of which may counteract free radicals in various disease processes as revealed in preliminary research. Phytochemical and nutrient content appears to vary across mango species. Up to 25 different carotenoids have been isolated from mango pulp, the densest of which was beta-carotene, which accounts for the yellow-orange pigmentation of most mango species. Peel and leaves also have significant polyphenol content, including xanthonoids, mangiferin and gallic acid.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Traditionally the mango plant has many medicinal applications. Different parts of mango tree as leaves, fruit, and bark possesses beneficial medicinal activities. Mangiferin is a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthone C-glycoside. is extracted from Mango at high concentrations from the young leaves, bark, and from old leaves. Mangiferin shows an exceptionally strong antioxidant capacity. It has a number of pharmacological actions and possible health benefits. These include antidiabetic, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobal, antiinflamatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, anti-allergic and anticancer activity. The leaves possess antibacterial activity. mangiferin isolated from M. indica is reported to possess anti-influenza activity. The bark of mango tree is considered to be diuretic, astringent hemostatic and antirheumatic. Many polyphenolics contained in mango have shown anticancer activity.
Health Benefits
The mango plant has medicinal applications and many health benefits. The leaf-decoction is used as a febrifuge. The bark infusion has been used as gargle to treat mouth infections in children. In India and Nigeria, the infusion of the leaves singly or combined with leaves of Citrus sinensis is used in treating diarrhea, dysentery, gastrointestinal tract disorders, typhoid fever, sore throat and scurvy. The infusion is also drunk as tea for treating stroke and as a relief from pains and exhaustion. The fruits are great source of vitamin A. Infusion of the ground seeds have been used as remedy for diabetes. Sap from the leaves and unripe fruits have been eaten as colic and to treat irritations. Leaf extract of Mangifera indica also possesses antibacterial activity against some pathogenic bacteria. Preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that the plant possessed the phytoconstituents tannins, glycolsides, saponins and phenols. Phytoconstituents have been found to inhibit bacteria, fungi, viruses and pests. The leaves have been reported to possess antibacterial activity against E. coli and other bacteria in the family enterobacteriaceae. The bioactive component mangiferin isolated from M. indica is reported to possess remarkable anti-influenza activity. The presence of phytoconstituents in the leaf extracts may be responsible for the antibacterial activity of the plant. The seeds are used to treat stubborn clods and coughs, obstinate diarrhea, bleeding piles. The raw kernels are sometimes considered to be anti helmintic and for the treatment of diarrhea. The resin is a remedy for aphthae, syphilis, and dysentery. The resin is useful in cutaneous disease .the juice of kernel is snuffed to stop nasal bleeding. A decoction of the leaves with a little honey added is given in aphonia, the loss of voice. Mid ribs of the leaves calcined are used to remove warts on eyelids. Tender leaves, dried and made into a powder, are useful in diabetics. Dried flowers are useful in diarrhea, chronic dysentery and gleets.
Application in Cosmetics
Mango is one of the fruits that contain Retinol (Vitamin A). Retinol as a molecule is very small and capable of penetrating the skin's outer layer and regenerating the deeper layers that contain collagen and elastin. When it penetrates the skin, it stimulates the production of elastin and collagen resulting in smoother and more elastic skin.
Research References
1. Amtul J. S. and Shakoori A. R. Cellulase activity inhibition and growth retardation of associated bacterial strains of Aulacophora foviecollis by two glycosylated flavonoids isolated from Mangifera indica leaves Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 2011 5(2):184-190 2. Doughari, J. H. and Manzara S. In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of Mangifera indica Linn African Journal of Microbiology Research 2008 (2):067-072 3. Yashoda Bai S. and Gayatri M. C. In vitro and In vivo studies on effect of Mangifera indica L. leaf extract on bacteria isolated from flacherie infected silkworm, Bombyx mori L. J. Curr. Sci. 2010 15 (2):421 - 424 4. Nikhal S., Mahajan S.D. Evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Mangifera indica (leaves) J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.2(1), 2010, 45-47 5. Pitchaon, M. Antioxidant capacity of extracts and fractions from mango (Mangifera indica Linn.) seed kernels International Food Research Journal 2011 18: 520-525 6. Kanwal Q., Hussain I., Latif Siddiqui H., and Javaid A. Antifungal activity of flavonoids isolated from mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves. Nat Prod Res. 2010 24(20):1907-1914 7. Noratto G. D., Bertoldi M. C., Krenek K., Talcott S. T., Stringheta P. C., and Mertens-Talcott S. U. Anticarcinogenic effects of polyphenolics from mango (Mangifera indica) varieties. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 58(7):4104-4112