Open Login Screen


Cyperus scariosus is known as Nagarmotha in India, is a plant of the Cyperaceae family. Cyperus scariosus is a delicate grass, available in different places of Bangladesh and in eastern and southern parts of Indo-Pak subcontinent. It also grows wild in the Madhya Pradesh region of India. It is highly-prized in India for its roots and is used in aromatherapy, as a perfume and for many other purposes.

Listing Details

Botanical Names
Cyperus scariosus
Indian Names
Hindi : Nagarmotha Sanskrit : Nagarmusta, Nagaramustaka, Bhadramusta, kachharuha, kalapini Marathi : Lawala Tamil : Koraikkilangu, nakamuttakkacu Telugu : kolatungamuste, tungagaddalaveru Kannada : konnarigadda, nagarmusthe
Chemical Constituents
Phytochemical studies have revealed the presence of sesquiterpenes, steroidal saponin aurone and substituted hydrocarbons in Cyperus scariosus. The chief chemical constituent of Cyperus scariosus is the essential oil, which is a mixture of at least 21 compounds, most of which are sesquiterpenes, such as cyperene, rotundene, rotundenol, isopatchoula-3,5- diene, isopatchoul-3-ene, _-selinene, isopatchoulenol and scariodione. Ketones, hydrocarbons and a saponin have also been reported. The essential oil of this plant has been found to be effective in treating exudative and proliferative phase of inflammation and also suppressed adjuvant induced arthritis. Steam distillation of the tubers of cypriol yields 0.075-0.080% of an essential oil, the principal content of which is cyperine (1, 2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Cyperus scariosus is a delicate grass, available in different places of Bangladesh and in eastern and southern parts of Indo-Pak subcontinent. The brown colored plant rhizomes have a folkloric reputation as cordial, tonic, vermifuge, diuretic, diaphoretic and desiccant. It is prescribed by the local traditional medicine practitioners to treat a variety of diseases including diarrhoea, epilepsy, gonorrhea, syphilis and liver damage. The essential oil obtained after steam distillation of rhizomes and roots of the plant has its value in perfumery, and is also known to possess antibacterial, antifungal as well as plant growth-regulating properties. It also has hypotensive and spasmolytic properties as well. People in southern region of Bangladesh use leaf juice as a preliminary measure against pain and diabetes (3).The methanol extract of C. scariosus leaves has shown pain relieving effects and has reduced the elevated blood glucose levels of hyperglycemic mice. Aqueous-methanolic extracts of Cyperus scariosus showed hepatoprotective properties in mice. Oil isolated from Cyperus scariosus showed anti-inflammatory activity. C. scariosus causes immuno suppression by inhibiting Th1 cytokines in mice. The hepatoprotective activity of aqueous-methanolic extract of Cyperus scariosus was investigated against acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. Methanolic leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus has been checked for antinociceptive and anti hyperglycemic activity. Antinociceptive activity was determined using a model of acetic acid-induced gastric pain in mice and anti-hyperglycemic activity through glucose tolerance test using glucose loaded mice. The methanolic extract of C. scariosus leaves has had beneficial effects as a pain reliever and also in reducing the elevated blood glucose level of hyperglycemic (4, 5).
Health Benefits
Cyperus sacriosus is an important medicinal plant in Indian Systems of Medicine. It is indicated for inflammatory conditions of joints. It has been used in Indian Systems of Medicine and by Ayurvedic practitioners for the treatment of inflammation, arthritis and stomach disorders. The oil of C. scariosus roots was found to have potent anti inflammatory activity in rats against carrageenan induced edema, adjuvant arthritis and cotton pellet induced inflammation. The tubers are credited with astringent, diaphoretic, diuretic, desicant, cordial and stomachic properties. A decoction of the tuber is used for treating gonorrhea and syphilis. It is also given in diarrhea and for general weakness (6).
Research References
1. Alam M. A., Jahan R., Rahman S., Das A. K. and Rahmatullah M. Antinociceptive and anti-hyperglycemic activity of methanol leaf extract of Cyperus scariosus. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2011 Jan;24(1):53-6. 2. Gilani A. U. and Janbaz K. H. Studies on protective effect of Cyperus scariosus extract on acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. Gen Pharmacol. 1995 May;26(3):627-31. 3. ASISH KUMAR D. AND MOHAMMED R. MOHAMMAD A., ROWNAK J. and SHAHNAZ R. ANTINOCICEPTIVE AND ANTI-HYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF CYPERUS SCARIOSUS Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.24, No.1, January 2011, pp.53-56 4. Chemotaxonomic clarification of pharmaceutically important species of Cyperus L. Muhammad Z., Mushtaq A., Mir Ajab K., Shazia S., Gul J., Farooq A., Asma J., Ghulam M. S., Shabnum S., Amin S., Abdul N. and Sarfaraz Khan M. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 2011, 5(1):67-75 5. Deepak B., Kharya M. D., Sarang B., Anjali P., Prashant S. C., Kiranjeet K., Suri K. A., Satti N. K. and Prabhu D. Cyperus scariosus Chloroform Fraction Inhibits T cell Responses in Balb/C Mice Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2009; 8 (5):399-408 6. Anwar-Ul H. G. and Khalid H. J. Studies on protective effect of Cyperus Scariosus extract on acetaminophen and CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity General Pharmacology: The Vascular System 1995, 26(3):627–631