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Chavak

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Piper chaba belongs to the family Piperaceae. The Piperaceae is a family of flowering plants. It is a climbing glabrous creeper, cultivated in various parts of India and Malaya Islands. The plant Piper chaba is an annual/perennial shrub, cultivated in India, Malaysia and Bangladesh. Peper chaba is a much branched shrub.
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Botanical Names
Piper chaba
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Chabika, Chabya Hindi : Chab, Chabya Marathi : Kankala, Chabchini, Chavala Bengali : Chai Malayalam : Chavyam Tamil : Cavikai, Caviyam, Kantirai, Milaku ver, Chavyam Telugu : Chaikama, Sevasu
Chemical Constituents
From the aqueous acetone extract of Piper chaba, four new amides named piperchabamides A, B, C, and D were isolated, and their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. In addition, the gastroprotective effects of the principal constituents, piperine, piperanine, pipernonaline, dehydropipernonaline, piperlonguminine, retrofractamide B, guineensine, N-isobutyl-(2 E,4 E)-octadecadienamide, N-isobutyl-(2 E,4 E,14 Z)-eicosatrienamide, and methyl piperate, were examined. A phytochemical investigation was conducted on Piper chaba Hunter. β-Sitosterol, piperine, and piplartine have been isolated in pure form from the stems of this plant and identified.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Piper chaba is renowned in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine, in the folklore of Africa, Latin America and the West Indies as well as in the Chinese herbal medicines. The Piper chaba found to possess antibacterial, carminative, expectorant, analgesic, hypotensive and smooth muscle relaxant properties. Scientific studies have established that aqueous acetone extract from the fruit of Piper chaba as well as some isolated alkamides were found to be protective against ethanol and indomethacin induced gastric lesions in rats. Stem bark of Piper chaba produced a significant anti-inflammatory effect in rat model. Roots and fruits of Piper chaba find numerous applications in medicine, and are particularly useful in asthma, bronchitis, fever, and pain in abdomen, as stimulant and in haemorrhoidal effections. Because Piper species are capable of producing physiologically active compounds, they have attracted considerable interest. Piperine is the characteristic compound of the species. In addition, several alkaloids containing piperidine moiety have been isolated from Piper species (1). In Bangladesh and India, the decoction of the roots of Piper chaba is used for colic pain, dyspepsia and gastralgia. Recently, it has been reported that amides from Piper chaba significantly inhibit ethanol and indomethacin induced gastric lesions after oral administration (2).
Health Benefits
Piper chaba is a common pepper in the southern part of Bangladesh. Various parts of this plant have been extensively used in different traditional formulations including Ayurveda. It has shown analgesic, anti inflammatory, diuretic, anti-diarrhoeal, effect on gastrointestinal motility and CNS depressant activity in mice. Piper chaba is believed to have medicinal value in a wide variety of disease conditions including arthritis, asthma, bronchitis and piles. The petroleum ether extract of Piper chaba seed powder appears to have potential as a natural insecticide against Tribolium. castaneurn, Sitophilus oryzae, Pieris rapae and Spodoptera litura. Chloroform, methanol, and water extracts from medicinal plants used as self-medication by AIDS patients in Thailand. The crude extracts exhibited antimycobacterial activity with minimum inhibitory concentrations. The chloroform extract of Piper chaba fruits had strong inhibitory effects. Piperine from Piper chaba found to be very effective (3, 4). The fruit of Piper chaba is used for treatment of coughs and common cold and the stem bark for asthma, cough, cold, indigestion, loss of appetite and piles. The anti tubercular properties of this plant have also been reported. Preliminary pharmacological examination revealed a hypotensive and smooth muscle relaxant action. The dried powder of Piper chaba could inhibit the growth of the plant pathogenic fungi, Eusariun sp., Colletotrichum sp., Alternarui sp and Aapergillus n. The fruit extracts of Piper chaba had marked anti-fertility activity in rats. The alcohol extract of Piper chaba seed and Piper longum root was shown to lower the lipid content of the liver and ventricular heart muscles when it was administered to cholesterol-fed rabbits, treatment resulted in a regression of atheroma and inhibition of plaque formation (5, 6).
Research References
1. Morikawa T., Matsuda H., Yamaguchi I., Pongpiriyadacha Y. and Yoshikawa M. New amides and gastroprotective constituents from the fruit of Piper chaba. Planta Med. 2004 70(2):152-159. 2. Selma D. Piper chaba and Its Chemical Constituents KSU. Journal of Science and Engineering 2004, 7(2):34-37 3. Phongpaichit S., Vuddhakul V., Subhadhirasakul S. and Wattanapiromsakul C. Evaluation of the Antimycobacterial Activity of Extracts from Plants Used as Self-Medication by AIDS Patients in Thailand, Pharmaceutical Biology, 2006, 44(1):71-75 4. Naz T., Mosaddik A., Rahman M. M., Muhammad I., Haque M. E. and Cho S. K. Antimicrobial, antileishmanial and cytotoxic compounds from Piper chaba. [JOURNAL ARTICLE] Nat Prod Res 2011 Aug 11. 5. Wel Y. and Xu H. Laboratory evaluation of Piper chaba extract against Tribolium castaneum and Sitophilus oryzae * Proceeduiqe of the 7th International Worhng Conference on Stored-product Protectum - Yolume 1 6. Tarannum N., Ashik M. and Ekramul Haque M. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of Root Extracts of Piper Chaba Journal of Scientific Research 2009, 1(1):138-144