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Bharangi Mool

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Bharangi is botanically termed as Clerodendrum serratum. Bharangi grows throughout India. It grows in Eastern Himalaya, Nepal, Kumao, Bengal and Bihar, in abundance. A shrub attaining the height of 3-8 ft, with bluntly quadrangular stems and not much branched. It is a perennial shrub. The leaves are 7-15 cm long and 5 cm. broad, rough, serrate and tapering at the apes. The flowers are blue, fragrant and the plant looks beautiful during flowering. The fruits are purple drupes and succulent. Susruta have also described the medicinal properties of the plant particularly for respiratory complaints viz. asthma. Clerodendrum serratum is a deciduous shrub distributed in the forests of the western ghats of India.
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Botanical Names
Clerodendrum serratum
Indian Names
Bengali : Bamunhatee, Bamanhatee, Bhuijam Gujarati : Bharangee Hindi : Bharangi Kannada : Gantubarangee Malayalam : Cheruthekku Marathi : Bharangee, Bharang Oriya : Chinds Sanskrit : Angaravalli, Padma, Brahmanayashtika, Barbura Tamil : Cheruteku Telugu : Ganttubrarangee Urdu : Bharangi, Baharangi
Chemical Constituents
Phytochemically the root bark extract contains D-mannitol, stigmasterols and three triterpenoids- oleanolic acid, queretaric acid and cerratagenic acid. Leaf extract contains stigmasterol, spinasterol, luteolin, luteolin 7-0 glucoronide, apigenin, baicalin and scutellarin 7-0 glucoronide. From the bark the sapogenin mixture contains three major triterpenoid constitutent’s oleonolic acid, queretaroic acid and serratagenic acid. The root bark yields a glycoside material, phenolic in natures. D – Mannitol is isolated from the bark with a yield of 10.9 % . The powdered stem contains D- mannitol, D- glucoside of sitosterol, sitosterol and cetyl alcohol. Alcoholic extract and saponin isolated from root bark caused release of histamine from lung tissue. The plant is reported to contain β-sitosterol, 24(S)-ethylcholesta-5, 22, 25-trien-3 β-ol, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone, luteolin, apigenin, scutellarien, ursolic acid and two iridoid glucosides namely 7 β-coumaroyloxyugandoside and 7 β-cinnamoyloxyugandoside. The vast ethno medical uses of the plant inspired us to investigate the antioxidant properties (1). Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed presence of Flavonoids, Saponins and Sterols. Beta-sitosterol, 24(s)-ethyl cholesta-5, 22, 25-trien-3 beta-ol, 5 hydroxy-7, 4’-dimethoxy flavone, luteolin, apigenin, scutellarine and urosolic acid were reported in the stem of Clerodendrum serratum (2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Clerodendrum serratum, known as Bharangi in ayurveda and Sirutekku in siddha system of medicine, is claimed to be useful in treating pain, inflammation, rheumatism, respiratory diseases and malarial fever. Owing to its importance in traditional medicine the plant was investigated for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and hepatoprotective properties. Ethanolic extract of the root is reported for antinociceptive, anti inflammatory ans anti pyretic activities. Bharangi is bitter, pungent and astringent in taste. It is useful in asthma, cough, fever, worms, burning sensation of the body and wounds. Scientific studies suggest that apigenin-7-glucoside has demonstrated anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hepatoprotective and anti-diarrheal properties. The compound also showed significant protection against Alzheimer’s disease in mice (3).
Health Benefits
Clerodendrum serratum is known as ‘Bharangi’ in Ayurveda and ‘Siriutekku” in Siddha system of medicine. As per the traditional claims roots are the potential source of drugs for ailments such as asthama, bodyache, bronchitis, cholera, dropsy, eye diseases, fever, inflammations, malaria, opthalmia, rheumatism, snakebite, tuberculosis, ulcers and wounds. Leaves are used as appetizer and expectorant. It is one of the few shrubs that antagonize the effect of histamine. The roots and leaves of bharangi have great medicinal value. The plant is useful, both, internally as well as externally. The leaves are useful as an external application for cephalalgia and ophthalmia (4). It is an appetizer, laxative, hence is beneficial in anorexia, tumours and distaste. The decoction of bharangi root is extremely effective in edema over body. The plant works well as a blood purifier. Bharangi is the most valuable herb to take internally in respiratory ailments and for all fevers in general. As bharangi effectively liquefies the mucous, it is salutary in respiratory problems like colds, bronchitis, bronchial asthma and tuberculosis. In such conditions, varied combinations of bharangi are recommended. It is claimed to be useful in pain, inflammation, rheumatism, respiratory disorders, fever and malarial fever. Ethanolic extract of roots of Clerodendrum serratum was evaluated for antiasthmatic activity by employing in-vivo and in-vitro screening models in guinea pigs (5, 6).
Research References
1. Bhujbal SS, Kewatkar S, More LS, Patil MJ. Antioxidant Effects of Roots of Clerodendrum serratum Linn. Phcog Res 2009;1:294-8 2. Narayanan N., Thirugnanasambantham P., Viswanathan S., Rajarajan S. and Sukumar E. Comparative Antibacterial Activities Of Clerodendrum Serratum And Premna Herbacea Roots 2004 66(4): 453-454 3. Vidya S. M., Krishna V., Manjunatha B. K., Mankani K. L. Manzoor A. and Jagadeesh Singh S. D. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of Clerodendrum serratum L. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 2007, 45:538-542 4. Jayaraj. F. C., Rajeshwari. D. S. and Basappa. B. K. Evaluation of anticarcinogenic activity of Clerodendrum serratum leaf extract on liver and kidney of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced skin carcinogenesis in mice European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2011, 1(4):130-141 5. Zalke A. S., Kulkarni A. V., Shirode D. S. and Duraiswamy B. In vivo anticancer activity of Clerodendrum serratum (L) moon, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2010, 1(3):89-99 6. Mukesh K. S., Gaurav K., Shiv K. I., Gotmi S. and Tripathi D. K. Clerodendrum serratum: A clinical approach Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (02); 2012: 11-15