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Pashanbheda

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Bergenia ligulata (Syn. Saxifraga ligulata), is a plant belonging to family Saxifragaceae and the genus Bergenia. The plant is mostly found in temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Bhutan and in Khasia hills at 15, 00 meter altitude where it is popularly known as Paashaanbhed.
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Botanical Names
Bergenia ligulata
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Asmabhedaka, silibheda Assamese : Patharkuchi Bengali : Patharkuchi, Himasagara, Patrankur Gujarati : Pashanbheda, Pakhanbheda Hindi : Pakhanabheda, Silphara, Patharcua, Pakhanabhed, Silpbheda Kannada : Alepgaya, Pahanbhedi, Hittaga, Pasanaberu, Hittulaka Malayalam : Kallurvanchi, Kallurvanni, Kallorvanchi Marathi : Pashanbheda Punjabi : Kachalu, Pashanbhed Tamil : Sirupilai Telugu : Kondapindi
Chemical Constituents
B. ligulata contains a phenolic compound bergenin, and afzelechin, a type of flavan-3-ol and bergenin. Chemical investigations have shown the presence of sitosterol, sitosterol-D-glucoside, bergenin and paashaanolactone. The main chemical constituents identified of the plant Bergenia ligulata are bergenin, β- sitosterol, β-sitosterol-D-glucoside, leucocyanidin, gallic acid, methyl gallate, catechin. The rhizome of Bergenia ligulata contains gallic acid, mucilage, wax, glucoside, albumin and starch. The roots of Bergenia ligulata are used as an antidiabetic drug, diuretic, astringent, cardiotonic, wound healer, expectorant, antipyretic and anti-haemorrhoidal. The increasing frequency of intake of NSAID and their reported common side effects, there is a need to focus on the scientific exploration of potential herbal drugs having fewer side effects (1, 2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Bergenia ligulata plant has exhibited significant anti-inflammatory, analgesic and diuretic properties. Purified fraction of the drug has shown potent antibacterial activity. Bergenia ligulata is a widely used plant in south asia, mainly India and Pakistan, as a traditional medicine for treatment of urolithiasis or kidney stones. Data indicate antiurolithic activity in Bergenia ligulata, mediated possibly through Calcium oxalate (CaC(2)O(4)) crystal inhibition, diuretic, hypermagneseuric and antioxidant effects, rationalizes its medicinal use for the treatment of kidney stones. The effects of the herb on kidney stone formation and on influenza virus have been validated. Bergenin and sitosterol, important constituents of Bergenia ligulata are well known for pharmacological actions (2, 3). Bergenia ligulata rhizomes also possess virucidal activity. Methanol water extracts from rhizomes of Bergenia ligulata, inhibited in vitro the replication of influenza virus in a dose dependent manner and did not show virucidal activity at effective concentration. The extract inhibited viral RNA synthesis and reduced viral peptide synthesis. The virus inhibitory effect is related to the presence of condensed tannins in the extract (4). Bergenia ligulata is well known for its litholytic activity. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Bergenia ligulata has been studied in the growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals. Bergenia ligulata is commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in a scientific study with Bergenia ligulata compared to other herbs as Tribulus terrestris (5).
Health Benefits
Bergenia ligulata is called Pashanbheda in India, and used as medicinal plant at Ayurvedic medicine. The roots of pashanabheda have great medicinal value. Externally, the paste of roots is beneficial in wounds associated with edema. Its anti-inflammatory property finds a use in the treatment of abscesses and cutaneous infections. Internally, in Ayurvedic practice, pashanabheda, as its name suggests, is used as a litholytic agent for urinary calculi. In urinary symptoms, associated with calculi, the decoction of its roots by itself is a valuable panacea. The root powder of pashanabheda, by itself, is used as an adjunct in diabetes mellitus. It particularly helps women, in diseases like leucorrhea, menorrhagia and dysmenorrheal. It is an effective remedy for haemorrhoids, diarrhea, dysentery, heart diseases, and splenic disorders. It relieves the obstructed phlegm in respiratory catarrh, like cough and colds. Pashanabheda is useful as an antidote in opium poisoning (6). Pashanbheda extract has whitening ability, anti-oxidant ability, anti-aging ability and anti-inflammatory ability. Developed .BETA.-Glucan extract is made of .BETA.-Glucan, polysaccharide, which is about 1 million at an average rate of molecular weight. It has acceleration effect on collagen synthesis and immunology power enhancement effect, and also it makes cosmetics viscous.
Research References
1. Tehseen S., Afzal Z., Tasleem A., Bader G. N., Mohammad N. and Shakir A. Antibacterial and Anti-inflammatory Potential Bergenia ligulata Am. J. Biomed. Sci. 2010, 2(4), 313-321 2. Sarala S., Paruchuri S., Rajiv Kumar T. and Anitha B. H. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF BERGENIA LIGULATA BY HRBC MEMBRANE STABILIZATION METHOD INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMA WORLD RESEARCH IJPWR 2011, 2(4) 3. NARDEV S., ATUL K. G., VIJAY J. AND RENU C. STUDY OF ANTIPYRETIC ACTIVITY OF EXTRACTS OF BERGENIA LIGULATA WALL International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 1(3)2010 4. Bashir S. and Gilani A. H. Antiurolithic effect of Bergenia ligulata rhizome: an explanation of the underlying mechanisms. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009 Feb 25;122(1):106-16. Epub 2008 Dec 11. 5. Rajbhandari M., Wegner U., Schöpke T., Lindequist U. and Mentel R. Inhibitory effect of Bergenia ligulata on influenza virus A. Pharmazie. 2003 Apr;58(4):268-71. 6. Yusei K., Hidehiko Y., Takuya S. and Mitsuo M. Insecticidal effect and chemical composition of the volatile oil from Bergenia ligulata. Department of Applied Chemistry, Kinki University, Higashiosaka-shi, Osaka 577-8502, Japan. 7. Joshi VS, Parekh BB, Joshi MJ. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro J Crystal Growth. 2009 Feb 15; 275 (1-2):1403-1408. 8. Gogte VM (2000) Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan’s SPARC. 9. Chandrareddy UD, Chawla AS, Mundkinajeddu D, Maurya R and Handa S. S. Paashaanolactone from Bergenia ligulata. Phytochemistry. 1998; 47(5):907-909.