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Devdhar

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Cedrus deodara is a species of cedar native to the western Himalayas in eastern Afghanistan, occurring at 1500–3200 m altitude. It is a large evergreen coniferous tree reaching 40–50 m tall, exceptionally 60 m, with a trunk up to 3 m diameter. It has a conic crown with level branches and drooping branch lets. The leaves are needle-like, mostly 2.5–5 cm long, occasionally up to 7 cm long, slender, borne singly on long shoots, and in dense clusters of 20-30 on short shoots; they vary from bright green to glaucous blue-green in colour.
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Botanical Names
Cedrus deodara
Indian Names
Hindi : Devdaar, Diar, Diyar Sanskrit : Devdaru, Amara, Devahvaya Gujarati : Devdaar Marathi : Deodar Malayalam : Devadaru, Devadaram, Devataram Kannada : Dhadradaaru, Daevadaaru, Gnduguragi Marathi : Devadaru, Ewadar Urdu : Burada deodar, Deodar Tamil : Devadaram, Tevataram, Tunu maram
Chemical Constituents
The principle constituents of Devdhar is the oil which contains sesquiterpene i.e., a- himachalene (12.5%) and ß-himachalene (43%) associated with them are sesquiterpene alcohols (himachalol, allohimachalol, himadarol, isocentdarol and centdarol. Through spectroscopic analysis (Figure 2), some compounds were isolated from the pine needles of cedrus deodara are identified as 9-hydroxy-dodecanoic acid , ethyl laurate , ethyl stearate , 3-beta-hydroxy-oleanolic acid methyl ester , beta-sitosterol , shikimic acid , methyl coniferin , ferulic acid, beta-glucoside. From dried heartwood powder of plant three compounds with potent antioxidant activity were isolated in significant yields and identified by spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and LC-MS). They were identified as (-)-matairesinol, (-)-nortrachelogenin, and a dibenzylbutyrolactollignan (4, 4’, 9-trihydroxy-3, 3’-dimethoxy-9, 9’-epoxylignan). This is the first report of the occurrence of these compounds in plant. From lead acetate purified butanol soluble fraction of wood of cedrus deodara two lignans were isolated. From phytochemical screening of leaf part shows the presence o flavanoids, alkaloids, tannins and saponins. An isolated "CD lignan mixture" comprising lignans from stem wood of the plant consisted of (-)-wikstromal (7-79%), (-)-matairesinol (9-13%) and benzylbutyrolactol (7-11%). Further, cedeodarin (6-methyltaxifolin), dihydromyricetin, cedrin (6-methyldihydromyrecetin) & cedrinoside are also isolated from cedar wood. Isohimachalone, a compound from the essential oil of cedar wood was isolated. From phytochemical screening Cedrus deodora woods gave positive result for the presence of glycosides, tannins, fixed oils, flavanoids, and triterpenoids (1).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Various scientific studies demonstrated the significance of C. deodara. It possesses various beneficial properties. It includes anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as exerting an influence on the nervous system, cytotoxic effect, neuroleptic effect, antioxidant property. Various parts of the plant has enormous uses, wood extract is carminative, diaphoretic and antipyretic. Chloroform and acetone extract obtained from the leaf and cone part of plant shows good anti-tubercular activity caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis in tuberculosis gland. The heart wood extracts of Cedrus deodara was studied for anxiolytic and anticonvulsant activity. Traditionally the heartwood of C. deodara plant was used to enhance cerebral function, balance the mind, body connection, nervous system and strengthen the brain. It was reported to possess CNS depressant and neuroleptic activity (1, 2) . C. deodara was also reported to have good antioxidant property. The chloroform extract showed strong antioxidant activity on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. The heart wood of C. deodara was tested for its diuretic and anti- urolithiatic activity. So from the above study, it was concluded that the plant has great potential to inhibit stone formation. Chloroform and acetone extracts of cones showed antimicrobial activity. Ethanolic extract from the wood part of plant was evaluated against three gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus) and three gram negative (Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli) micro organism and C. deodara found to have a good antibacterial action.
Health Benefits
C. deodara plant is having the great medicinal and pharmaceutical use. Oil and extracts of plant are used in the various ailments for the treatment of patients like in inflammations, dyspepsia, insomnia, cough, fever, urinary discharges, ozoena, bronchitis, itching, elephantiasis, tuberculous glands, leucoderma, opthalmia, plies, and disorders of the mind, diseases of the skin and of the blood. Bark extract is used as astringent and also useful for treating fever, diarrheoa and dysentery. The oleoresin of deodar and the dark colored oil obtained from the wood are valued for their application for ulcers and skin diseases. The volatile oil extracted by steam distillation of C. deodara wood was examined for its gastric anti-secretory and antiulcer effect in the pylorus-ligated rat model and ethanol induced gastric lesions in rats. Its oil has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The plant has also shown wound healing properties and is particularly useful in infective wounds (3). “CD lignin mixture” isolated from the stem wood of Cedrus deodara. This mixture was evaluated for its in vitro anticancer activity. The in vivo anticancer activity of CD lignan mixture was studied using Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and colon carcinoma (CA-51) models in mice. Also effect was studied on annexin V binding, intracellular caspases and DNA fragmentation to gain insight into the mode of action. This lignin mixture showed significant dose-dependent effects against several cancer cell lines such as cervix, colon, liver, prostate and neuroblastoma (4).
Research References
1. Sumeet G., Anu W. and Rajat M. PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGY OF CEDRUS DEODERA: AN OVERVIEW International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2011. 2(8): 2010-2020 2. Slathia P. S., Bhagat G. R., Swaranjeet S., Kher S. K. and Narinder P. Traditional knowledge on utility of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) loud. in Doda district of Jammu province. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge 2007, 6(3):518-520 3. Kumar A., Singh V. and Chaudhary A. K. Gastric antisecretory and antiulcer activities of Cedrus deodara (Roxb.) Loud. in Wistar rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 134(2):294-297 4. Abha C., Swati S., Pushpinder K., Neeraj K., Archana T., Arvind G. and Bikram S. Antifungal Sesquiterpenes from Cedrus deodara. Planta Medica (impact factor: 2.04).
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