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Bauhinia variegata of the family Leguminosae is a medium-sized deciduous tree. It is found on the rocky hills of Circars, Deccan, and Carnatic regions of South India. Bauhinia variegata is a medium sized, deciduous tree, found throughout India, ascending to an altitude of 1300 m in the Himalayas. It is a small to medium-sized deciduous tree attaining a height of up to 15 m. Leaves have minute Flower clusters are unbranched at ends of twigs. The few flowers have short, stout stalks and a stalk like, green, narrow basal tube.
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Botanical Names
Bauhinia variegata
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Kovidara; Bengali : Raktakanchan Marathi : Raktakanchan; Gujarati : Kovindara; Hindi : Kachnar, Kaniar, Kannada : Arisinatige; Malayalam : Chuvannamandaram; Tamil : Shemmandarai; Telugu : Devakanchanamu;
Chemical Constituents
Phytochemical studies on the stems, flowers, leaves and seeds of Bauhinia variegata have led to the isolation of several flavonoids. There are various types of fatty acid compound found in B. variegata such as linolinic acid, oleic, steric, palmitic and myristic acid. A new lectin from seeds of the B. variegata was purified and biochemically characterized.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Bauhinia variegata possess various beneficial properties. B. variegata bark is used as an astringent, tonic and useful in scrofula, skin diseases, and ulcers. The decoction of the roots is used in dyspepsia and act as an antidote to snake poison. Various researchers have reported that Bauhinia variegata has antidiabetic activity, good insecticidal, anti-goiterogenic and better antioxidant activity. Scientist has also reported that B. variegta has hepatoprotective property. It is also reported as an anti-inflammatory and immuno-modulatory for various inflammatory diseases. Bauhinia variegata also has antihyperlipidemic activity. The scientific studies have verified the traditional use of B. variegata for various human ailments especially for various infectious diseases. Thus this plant could be utilized as an alternative source of useful antimicrobial drugs (3). Anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity of the extracts of B. variegata was reported. There are also a few reports of antitumour activity of B. variegata ethanolic extract against Dalton’s ascetic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice and N-nitrosodiethylamine induced experimental liver tumours in rats and human cancer cell lines. The leaves of the many Bauhinia species are used in anti diabetic treatments by many populations of the world. In India, stem bark is used for its antidiabetic use in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. In a recent in-vitro study, the ethanolic extract of B. variegata and its major constituent, Roseoside has demonstrated enhanced insulin release from the beta-cell lines INS-1.
Health Benefits
The various parts of the plant, as flower buds, flowers, stem, stem bark, leaves, seeds, and roots are utilized in various indigenous system of medicine. It is popular among the various indigenous system of medicine and among the various ethnic groups in India for curing a variety of ailments. The bark of the plant is medicinally more important and is used by tribals against a variety of ailments. The bark is used in fever, as tonic, and astringent, as antileprotic, in skin diseases and wound healing, antigoitrogenic, and as antitumor. The bark is also documented as astringent to bowels, tonic to the liver, and beneficial for the cure of dysmenorrheal, menorrhagia, tuberculosis, asthma, and wounds. The stem bark of B. variegata is reported to possess hepatoprotective, antihelmintic, and antidiabetic activities. Bauhinia variegata plant bark possess the property to overcome hypertension, elimination of cholesterol helping the body to develop elasticity to the arterial walls, is always used as a folk medicine. It had been found that the plant possesses the ability to increase calcium and potassium channels.
Research References
1. Agrawal R. C. and Sonam P. Evaluation of Anticarcinogenic and Antimutagenic Potential of Bauhinia variegata Extract in Swiss Albino Mice RESEARCH COMMUNICATION Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 10:913-916 2. Ravindra G. M. and Avinash S. D. Evaluation of effects of Bauhinia variegate stem bark extracts against milk-induced eosinophilia in mice. Journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research 2011, 2(2):132-134 3. Gayathri G., Saraswathy A. and Vijayalakshmi K. Antimicrobial Activity Of Medicinal Plant Bauhinia variegata Linn. International Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences 2011, 1(4):400-408 4. Surendra H. B. and Alpana R. Hepatoprotective properties of Bauhinia variegate Bark Extract. The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan 2007, 127(9):1503-1507 5. Parveen K., Shailesh B., Gaidhani S. N, Gupta M. D. and Manish M. W. Research letter Antidiabetic activity of stem bark of Bauhinia variegata in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rats JOURNAL OF PHARMACOLOGY AND PHARMACOTHERAPEUTICS 6. Sahu G. and Gupta P. K. A Review on Bauhinia variegata International Research Journal of Pharmacy 2012, 3(1): 48-51 7. Sawhney S. S., Amin M. and Sandeep K. Phytochemical Screening and Antioxidant properties of Bauhinia Variegata (bark). S.S.Sawheney et al / Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology 2011, 3 (8):645-650 8. NAILA R., BUSHRA S. and RAKHSHANDA N. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF FOUR COMMON PLANTS OF FAMILY CAESALPIMACEAE, Pakistan J. Pharm. Sci. 1989, 2(l):55-57.
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