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Mangosteen

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Mangosteen fruit is botanically named as Garcinia mangostana. It belongs to family Guttiferae. It is a tropical evergreen tree believed to have originated in the Sunda Islands and the Moluccas of Indonesia. The tree grows from 7 to 25 m tall. The rind of the fruit, which is not edible, is a deep reddish purple when ripe. The fragrant edible flesh that surrounds each seed is botanically called endocarp.
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Botanical Names
Garcinia mangostana
Indian Names
Hindi :Mangustan Bengali :Mangustan; Gujarati : Mangostin, Mangastin, Mangustan; Malayalam :Mangusta Tamil : Sulambali;
Chemical Constituents
annin is an important component of mangosteen tree obtained from the bark and fruit shell. The fruit shell contains 7-13% tannin. The rind of the fruit contains tannin, a resin and a bitter principle called mangostin. The edible aril contains saccharose, dextrose and kerrelose. The rind contains tannin, and a resin as well as a yellow crystalline bitter principle, mangostin or mangosim. It was reported that the flesh of the fruit (aril) contains saccharose, dextrose, and kerrelose. The seeds are reported to contain vitamin C. A new polyoxygenated xanthone, mangostanol, was isolated from fruit hulls of G. mangostana, along with known xanthones, alpha-mangostin, gamma-mangostin, gartanin, 8-deoxygartanin, 5,9-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-8-methoxy-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano[3,2b]xanthen-6-one, garcinone E and 2-(γ,γ -dimethylallyl)-1,7-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone and epicatechin. Three new xanthones, mangostenol, mangostenone A, and mangostenone B, were isolated from the green fruit hulls of Garcinia mangostana.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Mangosteen is one of the most famous fruits. The pericarps of G. mangostana have been widely used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhea, skin infection and chronic wounds in many countries. Experimental studies have demonstrated that extracts of Garcinia mangostana have antioxidant, antitumoral, antiallergic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antiviral activities (2). Extract from pericarp has been demonstrated the antimicrobial activity against a wide variety of microorganisms (3). Xanthones or xanthen-9H is a secondary metabolite found in mangosteen possesses many beneficial activities. Xanthones are present in peel, whole fruit, bark, and leaves of mangosteen. Several studies have reported that xanthones from mangosteen have remarkable biological activities such as antioxidant, antitumoral, anti-inflammatory, anti- allergy, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral activities. It is used to prepare astringent medicines for use in dysentery and enteritis. The rind of the fruit, which contains resin, is used in diarrhea and dysentery.
Health Benefits
Many tropical plants have interesting biological activities with potential therapeutic applications. Garcinia mangostana belongs to the family of Guttiferae. In many countries the pericarp (peel, rind, hull or ripe) of Garcinia mangostana is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, diarrhea, dysentery, infected wound, suppuration, and chronic ulcer. The pericarp of mangosteen is a source of xanthones and other bioactive substances which possesses medicinal properties. The pericarp of mangosteen-fruit is beneficial in the treatment of skin infections and wounds, amoebic dysentery, etc. In Ayurvedic medicine the pericarp of Mangosteen-fruit has wide use against inflammation and diarrhea, and cholera and dysentery.
Application in Cosmetics
The scientific studies confirm that the mangosteen extract is an excellent choice for antibacterial, antifungal and anti-inflammatory effects on the skin. Thus mangosteen is very beneficial for acne prone skin (6). It is also effective in case of eczema and other skin disorders. The anti-oxidant activity of mangosteen proves to be beneficial in keeping the skin healthyThe strong anti-oxidant and astringent properties of the mangosteen fruit fights with the free radicals in the body and keep the skin healthy and glowing. Mangosteen provides a natural face lift and rejuvenation which bring a wonderful and natural glow to the skin.
Research References
1. Norizan A., Nik F., Nurunajah A. G., Sharipah R. S. Norizah J. S., Shamsiah A., and Halila J. Bioactive Xanthones from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana Middle East Journal of Scientific Reasearch 2010 6(2):123-127 2. Jung H. A., Su B. N., Keller W. J., Mehta R. G., Kinghorn A. D. Antioxidant xanthones from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana (Mangosteen). J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 22;54(6):2077-82. 3. VISHNU P. V., MALLIKA J., SURAPANENI K. M., SARASWATHI P., CHANDRA S. G. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PERICARP EXTRACT OF GARCINIA MANGOSTANA LINN. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) 2010 1(8):278-281 4. Maksum R., Atiek S., Renita R. and Berna E. Isolation of fungal endophytes from Garcinia mangostana and their antibacterial activity African Journal of Biotechnology 2011 10(1):103-107 5. José P. C., Noemí C. R., Marisol O. I., and Jazmin M. P. Medicinal properties of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) Food and Chemical Toxicology 46 (2008) 3227–3239 6. Mullika T. C., Suvimol S., Veena S. N., and Wandee G. Effect of Garcinia mangostana on inflammation caused by Propionibacterium acnes. 2007 Fitoterapia 78:401–408