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Danti Mool

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Baliospermum montanum belongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. It is distributed almost throughout India from Kashmir eastwards to Arunachal Pradesh, up to an elevation of 1,000 m and southwards into peninsular India, ascending to an altitude of 1,800 m in the hills of Kerala. Baliospemum montanum is an important woody medicinal plant, found in southern Western Ghats of India. It is an erect, sub herbaceous leafy shrub, generally known as Danti mool. It is well known for its medicinal properties.
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Botanical Names
Baliospermum montanum
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Anukula, Danti, Dantika, Dirgha, Erandhapatrika, Erandhaphala Hindi : Danti Kannada : Damti, Kaadu haralu, Naagadamti Malayalam : Ceriyadanthi, Naagadanthi Marathi : Danti, Katari Tamil : Pey-amanakku Telugu : Adavi amudamu, kond amudamu, nela jidi, nepalamu Bengali : Dantigaacha
Chemical Constituents
Presence of steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids; phorbol esters has been reported in the Baliospermum montanum plant. Roots contain phorbolderivatives-montain, 12-deoxyphorbol-13-palmitate, baliospermin, 12-deoxy-5-betahydroxy phorbol-13-myristate and 12-deoxy-16-hydroxyphorbol-13-palmitate. Since the harvested part is root, the whole plant often gets destroyed, thus, the prime objective this work is to establish an in vitro protocol for micropropagation of B. montanum as an alternative for rapid multiplication. Seed oil of B. montanum contains a new hydroxyl fatty acid, axillarnic acid as a minor component of the oil. Ethanolic extract of the roots shown the presence of five new pherbol esters-montanin, baliospermin, 12-deoxyphorbol 13-plmitate, 12-deoxy-16-hydroxypherbol 13- palmitate and deoxy s-8- hydroxyphorbol 13-myristate. Leaves contain 8-sitosterol 8-D-glucoside and hexacosanol. The presence of steroids, terpoids and flavanoids is also reported from the plant. The plant Baliospermum montanum is well reputed in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat various ailments.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Baliospermum montanum is commonly known with the name of Danthi in India. The roots are described as purgative, anti-helmintic, and diuretic. The Ayurveda claims the usefulness of roots in the treatment of jaundice. Preliminary studies on roots of B. montanum showed significant hepatoprotective activity of total methanol extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepato-toxicity. The powdered seeds are used as a drastic purgative. Externally, they are used as a stimultant and rubefacient. Almost all the parts of Danti are of medicinal importance and used traditionally for the treatment of various ailments. The roots of the plant are considered as purgative, anti-helmintic, diuretic, diaphoretic, rubefacient, febrifuge and tonic. They are also reported to be useful in dropsy, constipation, jaundice, leprosy and skin diseases. The leaves are found to be beneficial in case of asthma and bronchitis. The seeds of the plant are drastic purgative, rubefacient, hydragogue and stimulant. The oil obtained from seed is a powerful hydragogue cathartic and is found useful for external application in rheumatism. It has been documented that the seeds are used for the treatment of rheumatism, gout, and in gastric complaints. The seeds are also reported as purgative, stimulant, rubefacient, laxative, as antidote in snake bite, and in constipation. Leaves are used in the treatment of asthma, and in headache. Decoction of stem is used to get relief from toothache. The roots of the plant are practiced as laxative, in dropsy, jaundice, anasarca, anemia. They are also documented to be useful as an antiemetic.
Health Benefits
In the traditional systems of medicine, the plant of Baliospermum montanum commonly called Danti mool are used in headache and respiratory ailments. The seeds are very effective in the treatment of rheumatism. It is applied externally in rheumatism as a counter-irritant. In Ayurvedic system of medicine the root is considered pungent, heating, antihelmintic, and diuretic. It is useful in skin diseases, piles, wounds and enlarged spleen. The root is administered in dropsy and jaundice. It also enters into the Ayurvedic preparation such as Dasamoola panchakoladhi kashayam, used against ascites. The plant is reported to be used for the treatment of abdominal tumours and cancer. The leaves are purgative and also used for dropsy. The leaves are given as a decoction or infusion in asthma. Seeds and roots of this plant are used to treat jaundice, skin diseases, rheumatism, snakebite, and piles. Leaves are used to cure asthama, bronchitis, and abdominal tumours. In ancient time both Charaka and Shushrutha prescribed this plant for jaundice, anaemia, constipation, diseases of abdomen, piles etc. The seeds are externally used as a stimulant and rubefacient. The dried roots are considered antihelmenthic, diuretic and useful in enlarged spleen, abdominal tumors etc.
Research References
1. Wadekar R. R., Supale R. S., Tewari K. M., Patil K. S. and Jalapure S. S. Screening of roots of Baliospermum montanum for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in albino rats. Interanational Journal of Green Pharmacy 2008 Original Artile: 220-223. 2. Mali R. G. and Wadekar R. R. In vitro Anthelmintic Activity of Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg roots. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2008, 70(1):130-133 3. Sasikumar S., Raveendar S., Premkumar A., Ignacimuthu S. and Agastian P. Micropropagation of Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Muell. Arg.-A threatened medicinal plant. Indian Journal of Biotechnology, 2009, 8:223-226 4. Mali R. G. and Wadekar R. R. Baliospermum montanum (Danti): Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology- A Review Indian Journal of Green Pharmacy 2008, 194-200. 5. Hemant K., Jain S. K., Singh N., Dixit V. and Jain A. Anti Inflammatory Activity of the Plant of Baliospermum montanum (WILLD) International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences 2011, 1(1):101-107 6. Nayak S., Sahai A. and Singhai A. K. Analgesic Activity of the Roots of Baliospermum montanum Linn. Ancient Science of Life 2003, 23(2):1-6 7. Wadekar R. R., Agarwal S. V., Tewari K. M., Shinde R. D., Mate S. and Patil K.Effect of Baliospermum montanum root extract on phagocytosis by human neutrophils. International Journal of Green Pharmacy 2008:111-113 8. Sibin N.T, Rameshchandrabhanu D., Gangaprasad A. and Nair G. M. TISSUE CULTURE STUDIES ON BALIOSPERMUM MONTANUM (WILLD.) MUELL.-ARG, A RARE MEDICINAL PLANT
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