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Rohitaka

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Amoora rohituka is an evergreen tree that grows wild and planted in many districts of Bangladesh. It is a medium or large sized tree, 15 to 20 meters in height. The leaves are large, imparipinnate. The leaflets are opposite, elliptic-oblong, acuminate, glabrous on both the surface. The male flowers are numerous in axillary panicles; female or bisexual flowers are larger than male axillary or supra-axillary solitary spikes. The fruits are globular, smooth, and yellow when ripe. The seeds are with scarlet aril.
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Botanical Names
Amoora rohituka
Indian Names
Gujarati : Ragat Rohido Marathi : Raktharohida Bengali : Tiktaraj Kannada : Mukhyamuttage Tamil : Malampuluvan, Sem, Semmaram Malayalam : Chemmaram, Sem Telugu : Chevamanu,Rohitaka
Chemical Constituents
Chemical investigations of A. rohituka afforded a number of limonoids, triterpenes, an alkaloid, a chromone and three flavonoid glycosides. Phytochemical investigation of petroleum ether extract of Amoora rohituka stem bark furnished two known phenolics, eugenol and myristiciin along with stigmasterol. The plant contains limonoids, triterpenes, amooramin, alkaloid, flavonoid glycosides and sesquiterpenes. Phytochemical investigation of petroleum ether extract of Amoora rohituka stem bark furnished two known phenolics, eugenol and myristiciin along with stigmasterol. The hydrodistilled leaf and fruit oils of Amoora rohituka cultivated in Egypt was analyzed by GC/MS. Forty components were identified in the fruit oil, while 20 components were identified in the leaf oil based on their retention indices and mass spectra. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpenoids (90.4% and 87% in the leaf and fruit, respectively). Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 65.6% in leaf oil and 47.1% in fruit oil; while oxygenated sesquiterpenes constituted 24.8% in leaf oil and 39.9% in fruit oil. Both oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity, but no antifungal activity. A number of limionoids, triterpenes, sesquiterpenes alkaloids and flavonoid glycosides were isolated from A. rohituka. Limonoids isolated from the seeds and bark, flavonoid glycosides and a chromone isolated from roots, triterpenes, guanine sesquiterpenes isolated from stem bark and alkaloid rohitukine isolated from stems and leaves are a key metabolites in A. rohituka.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health
Pharmacology
The seeds of Amoora rohituka have a folkloric reputation to exhibit laxative, anthelmintic and anti ulcer properties. The hepato protective activity of the plant extract, antimicrobial activity of volatile oils, antiviral and antibacterial activity of the isolated limonoid rohitukin, cytotoxicity of amoorastatin, growth inhibitory effect of 12a-hydroxyamoorastatin against murine P388 lymphocytic leukaemia cell lines have been reported. Amoora rohituka possesses considerable anti tumor and antibacterial properties. An ethyl acetate extract derived from the stem bark of Amoora rohituka exhibited antitumor activity on mice inoculated with Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells. The seeds have a folkloric reputation to exhibit laxative, anti-helmintic and anti ulcer properties. In addition, seed oils and plant extracts have been reported to possess multiple therapeutic properties like hepato protective, antibacterial, antiviral and laxative activities. The extracts of Amoora rohituka (stem bark) exhibited significant in vitro antibacterial activity. The extracts also demonstrated mild antifungal effect.
Health Benefits
moora rohituka is a valuable medicinal plant of meliaceae family which is abundantly found in India. The stem bark of Amoora rohituka is used in spleen and liver diseases, tumors and abdominal complaints. Powdered bark of the plant is also effective in hepatomegaly and also used in spleen diseases, tumors and abdominal complaints. A. rohituka bark is a strong astringent, antimicrobial, used for the treatment of liver and spleen diseases, rheumatism and tumors. A. polystachya bark extracts showed antitumor activity radioprotective efficacy and augment the frequency of defecation and propulsion of the GI content. A. rohituka seed exacts showed anti feedant, repellant and contact toxicity to betels. Majority of the recent studies on alternative medicine suggested that Amoora rohituka possesses considerable anti tumor and antibacterial properties.
Research References
Aboutabl E. A., El-Sakhawy F. S., Fathy M. M. and Megid R. M. A. Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf and Fruit Oils from Amoora rohituka Wigth. et Arn. Journal of Essential Oil Research J. Essent. Oil Res. 2000, 12(5):635-638. Chan L. L., George S., Ahmad I., Gosangari S. L., Abbasi A., Cunningham B. T. and Watkin K. L. Cytotoxicity Effects of Amoora rohituka and chittagonga on Breast and Pancreatic Cancer Cells. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2011. Rabi T. and Gupta R. C. Antitumor and Cytotoxic Investigation of Amoora Rohituka Pharmaceutical Biology 1995, 33(4):359-361 CHOWDHURY R. and RASHID R. B. SHORT COMMUNICATION EFFECT OF THE CRUDE EXTRACTS OF AMOORA ROHITUKA STEM BARK ON GASTROINTESTINAL TRANSIT IN MICE Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2003; 35: 304-307. Rowshanul HABIB M., Mohaimenul ISLAM M. and Rezaul KARIM M. Antitumour activity of Amoora rohituka Roxb. Stem against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice BIHAREAN BIOLOGIST 2011, 5(2):109-112