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Kiwi

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Kiwi is botanically named as Actinidia deliciosa belongs to the genus Atinidia family Atinidiaeae. Actinidia deliciosa is borne on a vigorous, woody, twining vine or climbing shrub reaching 9 m. Its leaves are alternate, long-petioled, deciduous, and oval to nearly circular. The flowers are fragrant, dioecious or bisexual Male and female flowers appear on different plants (dioecious) and both sexes have to be planted in close proximity for fruit set. The russet-brown skin of the fruits is densely covered with short, stiff brown hairs.
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Listing Details

Botanical Names
Actinidia deliciosa
Indian Names
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Chemical Constituents
Kiwifruit is a rich source of vitamin C. It also contains minerals such as potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, selenium, iron, zinc, and copper. Along with minerals it provides vitamins as Vitamin A, Vitamin C, folate, Vitamin B2, niacin, Vitamin B6, and Vitamin E. The skin of kiwi fruit is a good source of flavonoid antioxidants. The kiwifruit seed oil contains on average 62% alpha-linolenic acid, an omega-3 fatty acid. Usually a kiwifruit contains fat, protein, carbohydrates, and dietary fiber found partly in the edible skin (1). Phytochemical analysis of kiwi peel detects the presence of vitamin E, 2,8-dimethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridec-11-enyl)chroman-6-ol, as well as α- and δ-tocopherol, 7 sterols, the triterpene ursolic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 11 flavonoids. Chemical fractionation of kiwi fruit pulp showed the presence of two caffeic acid glucosyl derivatives and two coumarin glucosydes, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, chlorogenic acid, and some flavone and flavanol molecules.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Kiwi is a rich source of vitamins and minerals thus it is very beneficial for human health. Kiwifruit emerged from food ranking system as an excellent source of vitamin C. This nutrient is the primary water-soluble antioxidant in the body, neutralizing free radicals that can cause damage to cells and lead to problems such as inflammation and cancer (3). Kiwi fruit is helpful in reducing the severity of conditions like osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and asthma, and for preventing conditions such as colon cancer, atherosclerosis, and heart disease. Antioxidant micronutrients present in kiwi may account for the beneficial effects of fruits on human health. A direct demonstration that consumption of fruit decreases oxidative DNA damage in human cells would support this hypothesis. It has been observed through research that Kiwi fruit protects against oxidative DNA damage in human cell (4). Nutrients in kiwi function protect lipoproteins and vascular cells from oxidation by mechanisms such as reducing plasma lipid levels (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides), and platelet aggregation response. Kiwi fruit which contains high amounts of vitamin C, vitamin E and polyphenols may be beneficial in cardiovascular disease. Platelets are involved in atherosclerotic disease development and the reduction of platelet activity by medications reduces the incidence and severity of disease. Kiwi fruit also possesses anti mutagenic property. It shows anticancer property against N-nitrosodibutylamine , N-nitrosopiperidine.
Health Benefits
Kiwi fruits are rich in many Vitamins, flavonoids and minerals. In particular, they contain a high amount of Vitamin C as compared to oranges, as much potassium as bananas and a good amount of beta-carotene. Kiwi fruits have high fiber content. The high content in dietary fiber helps improving diseases such as diabetes, by controlling sugar levels, and colon cancer, since fiber binds to toxic compounds in the colon and helps to expel them. Fiber has also been proven to reduce cholesterol levels, improving the conditions of patients with cardiovascular diseases and lowering the probability of heart attacks. Intake of kiwi fruit is particularly useful in many cases (6). It prevents asthma, wheezing and coughing, especially in children. It also protects the DNA from mutations and provides a healthy amount of antioxidants and vitamins. Kiwi fruit helps to prevent colon cancer because of high fiber content.
Application in Cosmetics
Kiwi fruit is packed with necessary nutritional vitamins, minerals and omega 3 oils. It includes more potassium than a banana, more vitamin C than an orange plus being rich in vitamin E and alfa linoleic acid an essential fatty acid. These nutrients are all imperative vitamins and minerals for health and skin care. Vitamin E plays a significant role in regeneration of healthy skin cells; it assists in keeping the skin supple, sustaining the skins elasticity. Vitamin C is a superb antioxidant as well as aiding in skin repair and intensely hydrating and rejuvenating. Omega 3 is a vital fatty acid that can not be produced by the body alone, although these are essential for together the prevention and treatment of the skin problems. Kiwi fruit is a wonderful anti-oxidant which is vital for health as well as skin care as it helps to safeguard against free radicals.
Research References
1. Souflerosa E. H., Irini P., Petridisb D., Lygerakisb M., Mermelasb K., Boukouvalasb G., E. Tsimitakis Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods Section Instrumental analysis of volatile and other compounds of Greek kiwi wine; sensory evaluation and optimization of its composition. 2001 Food Chemistry 75:487–500 2. Marco E., Maria C. M., Paola B., Fiorella S., Elisabetta M., Antonino N., Paolo F. and Giuseppe P. Chemical compounds and sensory assessment of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis (Planch.) var. chinensis): electrochemical and multivariate analyses. Food Chemistry 1998 61(3): 293-300 3. Antonio F., Brigida D A., Severina P., Claudio M., Monica S. and Pietro M. Identification and Assessment of Antioxidant Capacity of Phytochemicals from J. Agric. Food Chem., 2009, 57 (10): 4148–4155 4. Collins B. H., Horská A., Hotten P. M., Riddoch C., and Collins A. R. Kiwifruit protects against oxidative DNA damage in human cells and in vitro. Nutr Cancer 2001 39(1):148-153 5. Ikken Y., Morales P., Martínez A., Marín M., Haza A., and Cambero M. Antimutagenic effect of fruit and vegetable ethanolic extracts against N-nitrosamines evaluated by the Ames test. J Agric Food Chem. 1999 47(8):3257-3264 6. Duttaroy A. K. and Aud J. Effects of kiwi fruit consumption on platelet aggregation and plasma lipids in healthy human volunteers 2004, 15(5):287-292