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Safed Musli

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Chlorophytum borivilianum (Synonym Aperagus ascendes) is an herb belongs to genus Chlorophytum and family Agavaceae. Chlorophytum borivilianum is an herb with lanceolate leaves, from tropica wet forests in peninsular India. It is generally known as called safed musli in Hindi. Safed Musli holds an important place in the traditional medicinal system. Because of its therapeutic importance, it is the major constituent of more than 100 ayurvedic formulations.
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Botanical Names
Chlorophytum borivilianum
Indian Names
Hindi : Safed musli Malayalam : Shedheveli Sanskrit : Swetha Musli Tamil : Taniravi Thang Marathi : Safed musli Gujarati : Dholi Musli Telagu : Sallogaddaa
Chemical Constituents
Roots (tubers) of Chorophytum borivilianum are rich in alkaloids, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, polysaccharides and steroids. The roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum contain three important fatty acids, common sterol stigmasterol and one furostanol saponins. The root contains carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, saponins and alkaloids.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health
Pharmacology
Roots of Chlorophytum borivilianum holds very important position in Ayurveda and Unani system where it is mostly used to treat oligospermia, pre and post natal symptoms, arthritis, diabetes and dysuria. Antiviral, anticancer, immunomodulatory, antidiabetic, antistress, aphrodisiac, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of root extracts have been evaluated. It is cultivated and eaten as a leaf vegetable in some parts of India. Its roots possess various beneficial medicinal activities. The tubers of Chlorophytum borivilianum possess various therapeutic values such as total rejuvenator, antioxidant and immuno modulator. Roots are claimed to be useful to treat oligospermia, pre- and post-natal symptoms, arthritis, diabetes and dysuria. It is being used as an anti arthritic and anticancer drug as it also possesses anti-cancerous properties. The medicinal value is thought to derive from its saponin content. It has been suggested that it may produce an aphrodisiac agent. The saponins and alkaloids present in the plant are the source of its alleged aphrodisiac properties. Chlorophytum borivilianum root extracts shows immuno modulatory activity. It strengthens the immune system and helps the body to fight against diseases.
Health Benefits
Safed Musli is of importance in the traditional medicinal system. As a rich source of over 25 alkaloids, vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, steroid and polysaccharides, the tuberous roots are used to prepare herbal products and ayurvedic medicines, especially a nutritive tonic. It has anti-ageing properties and rejuvenates the whole body and mind without any side effects. The dried tubers of safed musali are used for pre-natal and post-natal illness. It cures physical weakness. It is also used as an herbal remedy for diabetes and arthritis. Research indicates that the saponin stigmasterol is a component in this herb can prevent ovarian, breast, prostate and colon cancers in women. It is recommended as a dietary supplement for women for their pre-natal and post-natal problems. It has been proved that the plant improves the immunity in human body. It has also been proved very effective for alleviating diabetes, arthritis and many other gynecological problems.
Research References
Copyright © Pharmacognosy Research Isolation and characterization of phytoconstituents from Chlorophytum borivilianum Sharada L. Deore and Somshekhar S. Khadabadi Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Nov-Dec; 2(6): 343–349. doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.75452 R Haque, S Saha, T Bera, .A Peer Reviewed of General Literature on Chlorophytum borivilianum Commercial Medicinal Plant., Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., Jan-March 2011, 3(1): 140-155