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Parijat

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Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a species belongs to the genus Nyctanthes and family Oleadeae. It is native to southern Asia, from northern Pakistan and Nepal south through northern India and southeast to Thailand. It is a shrub or a small tree growing to 10 m tall, with flaky grey bark. The leaves are opposite, simple, 6–12 cm long and 2–6.5 cm broad, with an entire margin. The flowers are fragrant, with a five- to eight-lobed white corolla with an orange-red centre. The fruit is a flat brown heart-shaped to round capsule 2 cm diameter, with two sections each containing a single seed.
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Botanical Names
Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Parijatha Bengali : Shephalika, Siuli Hindi : Harashringara, Harsingar Malayalam : Parijatakam Marathi : Parijathak Gujarati : Jayaparvati Oriya : Gangasiuli Kannada : Parijatha Tamil : Parijata, Paghala
Chemical Constituents
The reported phyto constituents of the Parijat leaves are arborsides A, B, C, flavonol glycosides, astragalin and nicotiglorin. Flavonoids are large group of compounds occurring abundantly in plants. Leaves Nyctanthes arbor-tristis also found to contain D-mannitol, β-sitosterole. Flavanol glycosides- astragaline, nicotiflorin, oleanolic acid, nyctanthic acid, tannic acid, ascorbic acid, methyl salicylate, an amorphous glycoside An amorphous resin, trace of volatile oil, carotene, friedeline, lupeol, mannitol, glucose and fructose, iridoid glycosides, benzoic acid. Stem contains few important constituents such as glycoside-naringenin-4’-0-β-glucapyranosyl-α-xylopyranoside and β-sitosterol.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure Liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health
Pharmacology
Nyctanthes arbortristis is known as Parijat in India. Every part of this plant is used as medicinal plant to cure different diseases. The most common use of this plant is as an antihelminthic, cholagogoue and laxative. The claimed traditional medicinal uses have been proved on scientific basis using in vitro and in vivo experiments. The plant have been screened for antihistaminic activity, tranquillizing, anesthetic, analgesic, anti inflammatory, antipyretic, antiulcer, amoebicidal, antidepressant, antiviral and immuno modulatory activities. The antibacterial potential of leaves was tested against many strains each of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria through agar disc diffusion assay. The bacterial strains Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas marginata and Staphylococcus epidermis were found to be susceptible. The anticancer potential of the extracts was tested on the T-cell leukemia (MOLT-4) cells. As a measure of genotoxic assessment, micronucleus assay was done in cancer and normal cultures exposed to increasing concentration of different extracts. In both cultures, there was a vast difference between the number of micronuclei induced by the extracts even at the highest tested concentration and the positive control. The results indicated that more elaborate studies are required that may lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agent.
Health Benefits
Different parts of N. arbortristis are known to possess various ailments by rural and tribal people of India. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis is a large shrub which is widely cultivated throughout India as a garden plant. The bitter leaves are used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica, diuretic and intestinal worms. The powdered seeds are recommended for the treatment of scurvy. Juice of the leaves is used as digestives, laxative, diaphoretic and diuretic. Leaves are also used in the enlargement of spleen. Traditionally the powdered bark is given in rheumatic joint pain, in treatment of malaria and also used as an expectorant. Leaves extracts was found to have antimicrobial activity. The bitter leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis are used in traditional systems of medicines for the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica and intestinal worms.
Research References
1. Marikani K. and A.J.A. Ranjit Singh An Immuno-Pharmacological Investigation of Indian Medicinal Plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn World Applied Sciences Journal 11 (5): 495-503, 2010 2. Sathiya M. and Muthuchelian K. Evaluation of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis leaf extracts for antioxidant, antibacterial and anticancer potentials in vitro Medicinal Plants - International Journal of Phytomedicines and Related Industries 2010 2(3): 205- 214 3. VIPIN S., POOJA and AMIT M. HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF NYCTANTHES ARBORTRISTIS LINN. ROOT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3(3), 2011 4. Mohammad M. M. and Mohammad S. Analysis of Fatty acid composition of Nyctanthus arbortristis Linn. Bark by Gas Liquid Chromatography International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, 2011 3(4):1-5 5. Nihal S.V., Sumeet D., Debadash P. and Gupta S. K. Anti-bacterial activity of root bark of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF DRUG DISCOVERY AND HERBAL RES EARCH (IJDDHR) 2011, 1(2):61-62 6. Vats M., Sharma N. and Sardana S. Antimicrobial Activity of Stem Bark Extracts of Nyctanthes arbortristis linn. (Oleaceae) International Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemical Research 2009; 1(1):12-14 7. Harleen K. S., Mohanjit k., Bimlesh K., Sunil P. INTERNATIONALE HARMACEUTICA SCIENCIA 2011 1(1):77-87 8. Marikani K. and A.J.A. Ranjit Singh An Immuno-Pharmacological Investigation of Indian Medicinal Plant Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn World Applied Sciences Journal 11 (5): 495-503, 2010