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Amba haldi

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Curcuma amada is a plant of the ginger family Zingiberaceae and is closely related to turmeric. Curcuma amada is generally known as Amba haldi in India. The rhizomes are very similar to ginger but have a raw mango taste. The rhizomes of plants in the genus Curcuma have a traditionally important role as a coloring agent in food, cosmetics, and textiles. Curcuma amada commonly known as mango-ginger is one of the species with rhizomes having the characteristic odor of raw mangoes.
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Botanical Names
Curcuma amada
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Amraharidra, Karpura, Amragandha Hindi : Am haldi, Amahaldi, Amba haldi Bengali : Am-ada Kannada : Amba-Halad, Amba haldi, Ambe haldi Marathi : Amba haldi, Ambe halad Malayalam : Mannayinci Tamil : Arukamleke, Makay inci
Chemical Constituents
Curcuma is one of the species with rhizomes having the characteristic odor of raw mangoes. The rhizomes of Curcuma amada have been reported to contain an essential oil, resin, sugar, gum and starch. Curcuma amada oil was found to contain ocimene as the major constituent besides linalool, linalyl acetate and safrole. Curcumene has been reported as the main component of this rhizome. The oil of the rhizomes, was primarily composed of α-pinene, δ-3-carene and (Z)-β-β-ocimene. Among the 28 constituents identified, ar-curcumene, β-curcumene, camphor, curzerenone and 1, 8-cineole was the prominent one. Curcumin, demethoxy curcumin, and bis-demethoxy curcumin have been isolated by column chromatography (CHCl3-MeOH; 98:2, 95:5) of the acetone extract of C. amada. These compounds were identified by spectral analysis (1). It has a morphological and phylogenic resemblance with ginger but imparts mango flavour. Mango flavor is mainly attributed to car-3-ene and cis-ocimene among the 68 volatile aroma components present in the essential oil of mango ginger rhizome (2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
The Curcuma amada rhizome has been extensively used as appetizer, antipyretic, and laxative. In the ancient Indian system of medicine known as Ayurveda, it is used to cure biliousness, itching, skin diseases, bronchitis, asthma, cough and inflammation (2). Its root is considered to be stomachic, bitter, aromatic, cooling, astringent, and carminative. Rhizomes are also used externally in the form of paste over sprains and skin diseases (1). It’s antibacterial, insecticidal, antifungal and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The rhizome is rich in essential oils, and more than 130 chemical constituents with biomedical significance have been isolated from it. The scientific study has also stated that the spice mango ginger possesses beneficial anti-hyper cholesterolemic activity. Amadannulen a novel compound isolated from Curcuma amada showed antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested. It also exhibited bactericidal activity against M. luteus, Bacillus cereus and Bacillus subtilis (3, 4). Gastric ulcer is the most prevalent gastrointestinal disorder, resulting from oxidative stress, Helicobacter pylori infection. Phenolic fractions of Curcuma amada acted as potent inhibitors of PPA and H. pylori growth (5). Curcuma amada extract also exhibited hyper cholesteremic effect in rabbits and showed presence of antibiotic principle with strong inhibitory activity on Aspergillus niger and Trichophyta Rubrum. Ethanol extract of Curcuma amada displayed antifungal activity and broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against all the tested strains (6, 7) A labdane diterpene dialdehyde a novel compound was first time isolated from the chloroform extract of rhizomes of Curcuma amada. This compound exhibited anti tubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain in BACTEC-460 assay. It is the first report on isolation and anti mycobacterial activity of this dialdehyde from C. amada (8).
Health Benefits
Mango ginger (Curcuma amada) is a unique species having mango flavour in its rhizomes and is of high medicinal importance. Curcuma amada is traditionally used as carminative and stomachic. Literature survey indicates the presence of multiple chemical constituents in Curcuma amada rhizome. According to Unani systems of medicine, it is a diuretic, emollient, expectorant, antipyretic and appetizer. The scientific investigation explores the antioxidant activity, cytotoxicity and platelet aggregation inhibitory potential of different mango ginger rhizome extracts (9). The rhizomes can also be used for the treatment of inflammatory conditions as a household remedy on empirical basis (10). Non polar extracts of mango ginger showed high antibacterial activity against gram-positive bacteria with low minimum inhibitory concentration.
Research References
1. A. P. Gupta, M. M. Gupta, Sushil Kumar SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CURCUMINOIDS IN CURCUMA SAMPLES USING HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY J. LIQ. CHROM. & REL. TECHNOL., 22(10), 1561–1569 (1999) 2. R.S. Policegoudra1, S. Divakar2 and S.M. Aradhya1 Identification of difurocumenonol, a new antimicrobial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) Rhizome Journal compilation ª 2006 The Society for Applied Microbiology, Journal of Applied Microbiology 102 (2007) 1594–1602 3. R.S. Policegoudra, K. Abiraj, D. Channe Gowda and S.M. Aradhya Isolation and characterization of antioxidant and antibacterial compound from mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) rhizome Journal of Chromatography 2007 852(1-2):40-48 4. Ghosh, S. B., Gupta, S. and Chandra, A. K. Antifungal activity in rhizomes of Curcuma amada Roxb. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1980, 18(2):174-176 5. M. N. Siddaraju and Shylaja M. Dharmesh Inhibition of Gastric H+,K+-ATPase and Helicobacter pylori Growth by Phenolic Antioxidants of Curcuma amada J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (18):7377–7386 6. Policegoudra, Raghu H. C., Somaradhya M. A. and Lokendra S. Cytotoxicity, Platelet Aggregation Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activity of Curcuma amada Roxb. Extracts Rudragoud S. R.S. POLICEGOUDRA et al.: Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activity of C. amada, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 49 (2) 162–168 (2011) 7. M. R. Srinivasan, N. Chandrasekhara and K. Srinivasan Cholesterol lowering activity of mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.) in induced hypercholesterolemic rats European Food Research and Technology 227(4):1159-1163 8. Sailendra S., Jonnala K. K., Dharmendra S., Karuna S., Jay P. T., Arvind S. N. and Suchitra B. A bioactive labdane diterpenoid from Curcuma amada and its semisynthetic analogues as antitubercular agents European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2010, 45(9): 4379-4382 9. A.M. MUJUMDAR, D.G. NAIK, C.N. DANDGE, H.M. PUNTAMBEKAR ANTIINFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF CURCUMA AMADA ROXB. IN ALBINO RATS Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2000; 32: 375-377 10. Shakeel A. J., Akira K., Syed A. G. and Kazuo N. W. Phytochemical, pharmacological and ethnobotanical studies in mango ginger (Curcuma amada Roxb.; Zingiberaceae) Phytotherapy Research 2007 21(6):507–516