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Grape seed

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A Vitis vinifera is a non-climacteric fruit, called grapes that grows on the perennial and deciduous woody vines of the genus Vitis and family Vitaceae. It’s grown in Asia, Central and Southern Europe, Greece, California, Australia, and Africa. Every part of this plant possesses beneficial properties. Grape seed extracts are industrial derivatives from whole grape seeds.
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Botanical Names
Vitis vinifera
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Draksha Hindi : Angur Marathi : Draksha Kannada : Drakshi Tamil : Drakshai
Chemical Constituents
The ripe grapes contain sugar, gum, malic acid, potassium bi-tartrate and inorganic salts. The dried ripe fruit commonly called raisins contain dextrose and potassium acid tartrate while the seeds contain tannin and a fixed oil (1). Grape seed extract is prepared from the small seeds that are found inside red grapes. The two key components of grape seeds are proanthocyanidins and resveratrol which act as antioxidants and protect the cells from harmful effects of free radicals (5, 8). Then there is linoleic acid is an unsaturated fatty acid important for human diet. Grape seed extract have a great concentration of vitamin E, flavonoids, linoleic acid, catechin, and OPCs (2).
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
Grape seed has number of beneficial properties. Grape seed possesses antioxidant, antiallergenic, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, anticancer and immune boosting properties. It helps the body to fight against viral infections, allergens, and carcinogens. Grape seed extract is useful to treat heart diseases such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol. By limiting lipid oxidation, phenolics in grape seeds reduce the risk of heart disease. While such studies are promising, more research including long-term studies in humans is needed to confirm initial findings (3). A polyphenol contained in grape seeds is resveratrol which may interfere with cancer cell growth and proliferation, as well as induces apoptosis thus it acts as anticancer agent. Grape seed components may also be active against HIV by inhibiting virus expression and replication (4).
Health Benefits
rape seed extract possesses many beneficial properties. It can be used to prevent various health problems which include cardiovascular disease, varicose veins, edema, and arthritis (5). Grape seed extract also acts as natural anti-histamine, moderating allergic responses by reducing histamine production and boosting the immune system. Another important area that grape seed extract can help is eye health. Grape seed extract is frequently recommended to combat macular degeneration, cataracts, and eye strain. Studies have shown that oral intake of grape seed extract reduces eye strain from prolonged computer use. Grape seed extract is one of the few antioxidants that can help to protect nerve and brain tissue by penetrating the blood brain barrier (6). Flavonoids and polyphenolic compounds present in grape seeds elicit anti-HIV effects such as inhibition of HIV-1 expression and virus replication but the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be clearly elucidated (7).
Application in Cosmetics
Grape seed is a rich source of antioxidants thus it is considered as a preferred ingredient in skin care. Antioxidants are the most important nutrients for the skin and are also acts as anti aging wonder. The bioflavonoids in grape seed extract help strengthen and protect cell membranes from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Its antioxidant properties are considered to be stronger than those of vitamin C and Vitamin E. It helps to repair connective tissue while promoting skin enzyme activity (8). Grape seed extract aids wound healing by helping to regenerate damaged blood vessels and clearing harmful bacteria from the wound. Grape seeds are one of the richest sources of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC's), which makes it one of the most powerful antioxidants available. Proanthocyanidins inhibit enzymes integral to the breakdown of the skin, such as collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase thus it maintains the elasticity of the skin and keeps wrinkles at bay. The use of grape seed extract can makes it possible to reverse the damage that has caused lines and wrinkles on the skin. Studies have also shown that proanthocyanidins acts as a sunscreen and help to protect the body from sun damage (9, 10).
Research References
1. Resveratrol and Its Glycon Piceid Are Stable Polyphenols Jiri Prokop, Petr Abrman, Allen L. Seligson, Milos Sovak Journal of Medicinal Food. 2006, 9(1): 11-14. 2. Metabolic constituents of grapevine and grape-derived products Kashif Ali, Federica Maltese, Young Hae Choi, Robert Verpoorte Phytochemistry Reviews. 2010, 9 (3): 357-378 3. Grape seed proanthocyanidins improved cardiac recovery during reperfusion after ischemia in isolated rat hearts1–3 Tunde Pataki, Istvan B., Peter K., Debasis B., Dipak K D., and Arpad T. Am J Clin Nutr (2002); 75:894–899. 4. Free radicals and grape seed proanthocyanidin extract: importance in human health and disease prevention Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Stohs SJ, et al.. Toxicology (2000);148:187–197. 5. Induction of full-length survival motor neuron by polyphenol botanical compounds Mary S. Sakla, Christian L. Lorson Human Genetics. 2008, 122 (6): 635-643 6. Phenolic Composition in Grape (Vitis Vinifera L. cv. Malbec). Ripened with Different Solar UV-B Radiation Levels by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis. Federico B., Jose D. A., Bruno C. Ruben B., Rodolfo W. and Fernanda S. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008, 56(9):2892-2898. 7. Grape seed extract proanthocyanidins downregulate HIV- 1 entry coreceptors, CCR2b, CCR3 and CCR5 gene expression by normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MADHAVAN P N., CHITHAN K., SUPRIYA M., HARIKRISHNA N., RAM C., THOMAS S., AND STANLEY A. S. Biological Research versión impresa, 2002, 35: 421-431. 8. Flavonoids in food and natural antioxidants in wine Lairon D, Amiot MJ. Curr Opin Lipidol (1999) 10:23–28. 9. Grape Extract Protects Mitochondria from Oxidative Damage and Improves Locomotor Dysfunction and Extends Lifespan in a Drosophila Parkinson's Disease Model Jiangang Long, Hongxiang Gao, Lijuan Sun, Jiankang Liu, Xi Zhao-Wilson Rejuvenation Research. 2009, 12 (5): 321-331 10. Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals Baliga M. S., Katiyar S. K. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2006 5(2):243-53. 11. Role of dietary flavonoids in protection against malignancy and coronary heart disease Hollman PC, Hertog MG, Katan MB.. Biochem Soc Trans (1996);24:785–9.