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Adulasa

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Adhatoda vasica (Syn. Justica adhatoda) is a shrub generally known as Adulasa. It belongs to the family Acanthaceae. The plant is distributed all over the plains of India and in the lower Himalayan ranges, ascending to a height of 1,500m. This is a shrub with lance-shaped leaves, oppositely arranged, smooth-edged, and borne on short petioles.
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Botanical Names
Adhatoda vasica
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Vasaka, Vasa, Adulsa Bengali : Baksa, Vasaka Gujarati : Aradusi Hindi : Arusa Malayalam : Atalotakam Marathi : Adulsa Kannada : Adusoge Tamil : Adathodai Telugu : Addasaramu
Chemical Constituents
Major constituents include a bioactive pyrroloquinazoline alkaloid, vasicine, about 1.3%. Alkaloids like vasicol, adhatonine, vasicinone, vasicinol, vasicinolone; aliphatic hydroketones viz.’ 37-hydroxyhexateracont-l-en-15one and 37-hydroxyhentetracontan-19-one are also present.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs, it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content by specifying a quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the marker substances or the ‘active’ ingredient. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug.Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants.Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interact with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs is to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E.coli which are causative agent for various gastro-intestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersentivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
This shrub has a number of traditional medicinal uses. It has been used as an antispasmodic, bronchodilator, and mucolytic agent in asthma and other respiratory ailments. The active compound, vasicine has been compared to theophylline both in vitro and in vivo. Another, vasicinone showed bronchodilatory activity in vitro but broncho constrictory activity in vivo. Vasicine also exhibited strong respiratory stimulant activity, moderate hypotensive activity and cardiac-depressant effect. Clinical trials of a commercial drug containing vasicinone and vasicinone have not revealed any side effects while successfully treated bronchial asthma.
Health Benefits
Adhatoda vasica is well known for its bronchodilator and expectorant properties. This activity is attributed to its leaves containing vasicine. Leaves give relief from asthma. It is also useful in cough, cold, asthma, fever. It possesses very good bronchodilatory and respiratory stimulant effect. Adhatoda vasica can be used as expectorant, antispasmodic and other chest infections. The drug possesses abortifacient activity and significant antimicrobial activity against gingival inflammation and pyorrhea. In addition, these tests measured the effect of anti helmintic activity directly on the processes of hatching, development and motility of parasites without interfering the internal physiological functions of the host. Several studies have been carried out in different parts of the world to evaluate the anti helmintic activity of medicinal plants against different nematode species of farm animal in vitro.
Research References
• www.pubmed.gov Pubmed, a wellknown site has listed important studies going on around the world in various universities. These include….. 1. Anticestodal activity of Adhatoda vasica extract against Hymenolepis diminuta infections in rats.(Yadav AK, Tangpu V.J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Sep 26; 119(2):322-4. Epub 2008 Jul 18.PMID: 18691645). 2. Quantitative determination of vasicine and vasicinone in Adhatoda vasica by high performance capillary electrophoresis.(Avula B, Begum S, Ahmed S, Choudhary MI, Khan IA.Pharmazie. 2008 Jan; 63(1):20-2.PMID: 18271297). 3. Validation of Different Methods of Preparation of Adhatoda vasica Leaf Juice by Quantification of Total Alkaloids and Vasicine.(Soni S, Anandjiwala S, Patel G, Rajani M.Indian J Pharm Sci. 2008 Jan;70(1):36-42.PMID: 20390078). 4. Protective Effect of Adhatoda vascia Nees Against Radiation-Induced Damage at Cellular, Biochemical and Chromosomal Levels in Swiss Albino Mice.(Kumar M, Samarth R, Kumar M, Selvan SR, Saharan B, Kumar A.Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2007 Sep;4(3):343-50.PMID: 17965765). 5. Rapid micropropagation via axillary bud proliferation of Adhatoda vasica Nees from nodal segments.(Abhyankar G, Reddy VD.Indian J Exp Biol. 2007 Mar;45(3):268-71.PMID: 17373372). 6. Anti-ulcer activity of Adhatoda vasica Nees.(Shrivastava N, Srivastava A, Banerjee A, Nivsarkar M.J Herb Pharmacother. 2006;6(2):43-9.PMID: 17182484). 7. Reversal of cadmium chloride-induced oxidative stress and genotoxicity by Adhatoda vasica extract in Swiss albino mice.(Jahangir T, Khan TH, Prasad L, Sultana S.Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Summer;111(1-3):217-28.PMID: 16943607). 8. Hepatoprotective activity of Adhatoda vasica aqueous leaf extract on D-galactosamine-induced liver damage in rats.(Bhattacharyya D, Pandit S, Jana U, Sen S, Sur TK.Fitoterapia. 2005 Mar;76(2):223-5.PMID: 15752635). 9. Study of alkaloids from Adhatoda vasica Nees on their antiinflammatory activity.(Chakraborty A, Brantner AH.Phytother Res. 2001 Sep;15(6):532-4.PMID: 11536385). 10. Modulatory influence of Adhatoda vesica (Justicia adhatoda) leaf extract on the enzymes of xenobiotic metabolism, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in mice.(Singh RP, Padmavathi B, Rao AR.Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 Oct;213(1-2):99-109.PMID: 11129964). 11. Antitussive effect of Adhatoda vasica extract on mechanical or chemical stimulation-induced coughing in animals.(Dhuley JN.J Ethnopharmacol. 1999 Nov 30;67(3):361-5.PMID: 10617073). 12. Activity of bromhexine and ambroxol, semi-synthetic derivatives of vasicine from the Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro.(Grange JM, Snell NJ.J Ethnopharmacol. 1996 Jan;50(1):49-53.PMID: 8778507). 1. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia (Revised New Edition 2002). 2. Standardization of Botanicals, Volume 2- By Dr. V. Rajpal. 3. www.pubmed.gov
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