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Hibiscus

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Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, generally known as the Chinese hibiscus or shoe flower, is an evergreen flowering shrub native to East Asia. Hibiscus rasa sinensis belongs to the family Malvaceae and genus Hibiscus. It is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout the tropics and subtropics. The flowers are large, generally red in the original varieties, and firm, but generally lack any scent. Vigor, attractive foliage, strong root system, longevity, easy to maintain, good flowering characteristics, etc. are some of the characteristics of hibiscus plant.
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Botanical Names
Hibiscus rosa-sinensi
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Japapushpa Hindi : Gurhal Marathi : Jaswand Gujarati : Jasud Bengali : Jaba Tamil : Shapa-tup Telagu : Dasnamu
Chemical Constituents
The major components of hibiscus flowers are delphinidin, esculetin, cyaniding, and flvones. They also contain gossypetin, anthocyanin, glycoside hibiscin. Flvones contain quercetin-3-diglucoside, quercetin-3,7-diglucoside, cyaniding-3,5-diglucoside, quercetin-3-sophorotrioside, kaempferol-3xylosylglucoside, cyaniding-3-sophoroside-5-glucoside and other constituent are cyclopeptide alkaloid, cyanidin chloride, hentriacontane, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, thiamine, taraxeryl acetate, β-sitosterol , cyclicacids sterculic and malvalic acids (1). Seven constituents were isolated from the bark of Hibiscus and identified as nonanedioic acid , suberic acid, 1-octarcosanol, beta-sitosterol, 1,22-docosanediol, betulin and erythrotriol.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritating to the skin as well as to the internal organs, hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E .coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health.
Pharmacology
All the parts of Hibiscus rosa sinensis and its chemical constituents possesses medicinal properties and are used as antifertility, antiovultory, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti estrogenic, antipyretic and anti tumer. It also possesses antispasmodic, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, hypoglycaemic, spasmolytic, CNS depressant, hypotensive and juvenoid activity (2). Hibiscus leaves are emollient, diuretic, refrigerant and sedative in action. Bitter roots of hibiscus are used as aperitive and tonic. Mucilaginous leaves can be used as an emollient and as a soothing cough remedy (3).
Health Benefits
This sweet-sour herb is often used in herbal teas, and is traditionally used to treat loss of appetite, colds, catarrh of the respiratory tract, as an expectorant, mild laxative and diuretic. Hibiscus leaves can be used in shampoo. Flower extract has been used in many folk remedies for liver disorders, high blood pressure and as aphrodisiac. Hibiscus relieves stomach problems, sweetens breath and soothes nerves. An extract of the hibiscus flowers lower cholesterol content in blood serum and helps to prevent oxidation of LDL. Daily uptake of Hibiscus tea is useful for reducing high blood pressure (4). Complex extracts of hibiscus have shown other properties in vitro and in animal studies, such as reducing skin cancer promoted by ultraviolet light, inhibiting herpes simplex virus, and lowering cholesterol levels (5).
Application in Cosmetics
Hibiscus has beneficial effect on skin due to the I-hydroxy-acids, anthocyanocides and mucilages contained, as the I-hydroxy-acids act on the horny layer of the skin, to reduce the cohesion between the corneocytes, which affects the thickness of the layer and increases skin moisture. This improves skin flexibility and elasticity, as well as creates higher moisture levels in the skin (6). The anthocyanocides present in hibiscus flower have astringent, anti-inflammatory, and free radical scavenging, as well as enzyme inhibition properties and is especially useful to inhibit elastase and hyaluronidase i.e against effect of aging. In hair treatments, shampoos with hibiscus restore the hair's natural barrier, rehydrate the keratin fibers and regenerate its structure. The active ingredients, I-hydroxy-acids, mucilages and anthocyanocides intervene in this action (7). In this case in particular, the anti-inflammatory, astringent and anti free radical properties of the anthocyanocides are of special interest. In treatments for dry hair, the components of Hibiscus increase the moisture in the horny layer and generate the hydro- lipid film, which gives hair its silky, shiny look (8).
Research References
1. V. M. Jadhav , R. M. Thorat1,V.J. Kadam N. S. Sathe2 Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn – ‘‘Rudrapuspa’’ : A Review Journal of Pharmacy Research 2009, 2(7):1168-1173 2. Seyyed M. Seyyednejad, Haniyeh K., Esmaeil D., and Hossein M., A survey on Hibiscus rosa—sinensis, Alcea rosea L. and Malva neglecta Wallr as antibacterial agents. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2010 3(5): 351-355 3. Karunakaran K. G., Mohamed T. S., Peter T. T., Vinoth V. P., Karthikeyan K. K., Niranjali S. D., and Jayaprakash S. S. Cardioprotective effect of the Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers in an oxidative stress model of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury in rat. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2006, 1- 8 4. IGOMATHI, N. AND MALARVILI, T. EFFECT OF HIBISCUS ROSA-SINENSIS ON CARBOHYDRATE METABOLIZING ENZYMES IN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE INDUCED OBESITY IN FEMALE RATS Journal of Cell and Tissue Research 2009, 9(3) 1969-1974. 5. Sachdewa A., and Khemani L. D. Effect of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. ethanol flower extract on blood glucose and lipid profile in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2003, 89 (1) : 61-66 6. S.K. Wong, Y.Y. Lim and E.W.C. Chan Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-tyrosinase and Antibacterial Activities of Selected Hibiscus Species Ethnobotanical Leaflets2010, 14: 781-96 7. Elemar G. M., Rafael d. C. H., Renato M. R., João Antonio P. H., Ana L.L., de Paula R. and Jenifer S. Pharmacological evidences for the extracts and secondary metabolites from plants of the genus Hibiscus. 2010 118(1): 1 January 2010, Pages 1-10 8. N. Adhirajan, T. Ravi Kumar, N. Shanmugasundaram and Mary In vivo and in vitro evaluation of hair growth potential of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 83(2-3):235-239
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