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Paederia foetida is a perennial climbing shrub belonging to the family Rubiaceae. It can be found in Bangladesh, parts of India, China, Japan, southern Bhutan, and Vietnam. Paederia foetida is a climbing, herbaceous, hairy or smooth slender vine. Perennial twining vine from woody rootstock; stems to 7 m, climbing, or prostrate and rooting at the nodes. Leaves are opposite phyllotaxy, ovate to oblong-ovate, with conspicuous stipules; petioles commonly to 6 cm long; blades entire, oval to linear-lanceolate, hairy or glabrous, often lobed at base. Flowers are small, grayish pink or lilac in colour. Fruit is shiny brown, nearly globose capsule, to 0.7 cm wide, with 2 black, round seeds, these often dotted with white raphides.

Listing Details

Botanical Names
Paederia foetida
Indian Names
Sanskrit : Gandha prasarani, Prasarani Marathi : Gandha prasarani Hindi : Gandhaprasarini Bengali : Gandha bhadulia Telugu : Savirela Tamil : Talanili, Mudiyar Kundal
Chemical Constituents
The major classes of chemical constituent present in Paederia foetida plant are iridoid glycosides, sitosterol, stigmasterol, alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, amino acid and volatile oil. This aromatic climbing plant is a leafy vegetable that can be eaten raw or steamed. Iridiod glycosides, paederolone, paederone, paederine and paederenine were the phytochemicals identified in this plant. Previous studies also identified a number of steroids and terpenoids and 77 constituents in the volatile oils of the leaves, stems and flowers of P. foetida, some at high levels. Upon distillation, a volatile oil is obtained with the offensive odor of the fresh crushed leaves two alkaloids are obtained: a- and b-Paederine. The leaves yield an indole. Leaves are rich in carotene and vitamin C. Plant yields friedelan-3-1, beta-sitosterol and epifriedelinol. Its leaves yield iridoid glycosides, asperuloside, paederoside and scandoside; sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol, ursolic acid, palmitic acid and methyl mercaptan. The methyl mercaptan is responsible for the foetid odor of the plant (1). In P. foetida nonanoic acid, capric acid, lauric acid, myristic acid, arachidic acid and palmitic acid have been detected. The major classes of chemical constituent present in this plant are iridoid glycosides, sitosterol, stigmasterol, alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, amino acid and volatile oil. Iridiod glycosides, paederolone, paederone, paederine and paederenine were the phytochemicals identified in this plant. Previous studies also identified a number of steroids and terpenoids and 77 constituents in the volatile oils of the leaves, stems and flowers of P. foetida, some at high levels.
Pesticide Limits
A limit for pesticide is one of the major issues in standardization of medicinal plants and products in view of the worldwide widespread use of pesticides in cultivated plants. The presence of pesticides in extracts increase the health risk by many folds. The pesticides can be extremely irritant on skin as well as in the internal organs hence it is essential to monitor its concentration as a part of GMP. Various analytical methods for the quantitative determination of pesticides by gas chromatography coupled with mass-spectrophotometer are in use. Konark Research Foundation (KRF), a NABL certified lab is well equipped with the latest technology and instruments and monitors the pesticide limit as part of its GMP.
Chromatographic Profile
From the pharmacopoeial perspective, a better quality control of raw material can be achieved by specifying quantitative test procedure for the determination of the range or a minimum content of the active ingredient or marker substances. A chromatographic finger profile represents qualitative/ quantitative determination of various components present in a complex plant extract, irrespective whether or not their exact identity is known. Thin layer chromatographic technique is the simplest and least expensive method that provides plenty of information on the composition of raw herbs and its preparation. For quantitative analysis of active ingredients or marker substances with simultaneous separation and detection High Pressure liquid chromatography is the best technique. We use the latest model of HPLC for all its analysis.
Limits of Impurities
A test requirement for foreign organic matter would ensure the extent of contamination of extraneous matters such as filth and other parts of botanicals not covered by the definition of the herbal drug. Since sand and soil are predictable contaminants of botanicals, test requirements for ‘total ash’, water soluble ash’, ‘acid soluble ash’, residue on ignition and sulphated ash would be expected to limit such contaminants. Test requirement for heavy metals in botanical raw material are probably more relevant for parts of plants growing under ground than for the aerial parts of the plant. The presence of high levels of minerals interacts with the final product there by affecting its keeping quality.
Microbial Limits
If the raw herbs are to be used directly without boiling in water prior to consumption, restrictive limits on microbial contaminants are required for pathogens such as Salmonella sp. Enterobacter and E. coli which are causative agent for various gastrointestinal diseases. A lower level of yeasts and molds and a limit on total aerobes are considered appropriate in plant material for topical use. The presence of aflatoxins detected by chemical means is generally independent of the number of viable molds that are detected using microbiological methods. Aflatoxins in microgram quantity are capable of giving serious hypersensitivity reactions which can be extremely harmful to human health
Paederia foetida, locally known as “Gandhavadulia” has a diverse pharmacological and phyto-chemical importance. The decoction of the whole plant is traditionally used in Ayurveda medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In Ayurveda, it is considered as alterative, antiarthritic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant and stomachic. It is also used in asthma, bowel complaints, diarrhea, diabetes, seminal weakness etc. It is also reported to be used in gout, vesical calculi, diarrhoea, dysentery, piles, inflammation of the liver and emetic. Paederia foetida is used as a remedy for diarrhoea and dysentery in Asia, but has not been investigated for its antidiarrhoeal properties. Antidiarrhoeal activity of 90% ethanol extract of Paederia foetida was investigated in the scientific study using castor oil and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice (2, 3). The Paederia foetida leaves aqueous and alcoholic extract has good antidiabetic potential along with significant hypolipidemic effects in the Streptozotocin nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.
Health Benefits
Whole plants, leaves, and fruits of Paederia foetida are used in folk medicines for treatment of ailments like hepatic disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, coughs, asthma, wounds, diarrhoea, dysentery, pain, typhoid, pneumonia, cancer, flatulency, body ache, and bone fractures. Antioxidant activity has been reported for fresh and dried plant extracts. Anti diarrhoeal activity has been reported for ethanolic extract of the plant in castor oil and magnesium sulfate-induced diarrhoeal models in mice. There have also been reports of the anti-inflammatory effects of plant or plant part extracts (4). A variety of therapeutic properties have been attributed to Paederia foetida plant in folk medicine. It is used to treat enteritis, flatulence and stomachache. Paederia foetida is a popular shrub used as a remedy for diarrhea and dysentery in Bangladesh. Paederia foetida is used in the Indian traditional medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In Folkloric it was used for rheumatism. The leaves, boiled and mashed, applied to the abdomen for urinary retention. Decoction of leaves also used for urinary retention and for urinary bladder stones. Bark decoction used as emetic. Decoction of leaves used for anti rheumatic baths. Pounded leaves applied to the abdomen for flatulence. Fruit used for toothaches and to blacken the teeth. Decoction of whole plant used for abdominal pain, abscesses, arthritis. In many traditional therapies it is used for diarrhea and dysentery. Poultice of leaves used to relieve distention and flatulence Roots and bark used as emetic, and in the treatment of piles and liver inflammation. Fruit used for toothache. In India it is used for rheumatism and stiffness of the joints. Poultice of leaves applied to abdomen to relieve distention and flatulence. Juice of the root is used for piles, liver and spleen ailments. In Ayurveda it is used for asthma, bowel problems, diarrhea, diabetes, rheumatism and seminal weakness (5).
Research References
REFERENCES FOR RESEARCH IN GANDHAPRASARNI PRODUCTS 1. Chauhan K., Patel A., Patel M., Macwan C., Solanki R. and Adeshara S. Paederia foetida Linn. As a potential medicinal plant : A Review Chauhan Khushbu et al. / Journal of Pharmacy Research 2010, 3(12),3135-3137 2. Vikas K., Yadav P. S., Udaya P. S., Hans R. B. and Kamaruz Z. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical study on the leaves of Paederia foetida linn. International Journal of PharmTech Research 1(3):918-920, 3. Hasnah O., Afidah A. R., Norhafizah M. I. and Nornaemah M. B. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Paederia foetida and Syzygium aqueum Molecules 2009, 14, 970-978 4. Reddy K. S., Kumar A. S. and Ganapaty S. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Paederia foetida root extracts in experimentally induced gastric ulcer in rats. IJRAP 20112(5):1556-1559 5. Borhan U., Taslima N., Ibrahim K. and Shahdat H. In vitro antibacterial activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) leaves Bangladesh J. Life Sci. 19(2): 141-143, 2007 6. Subrata D., Ravishankar B. and Bhavsar G. C. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Paederia foetida Journal of Ethnopharmacology 43(1):31–38, 1994 7. Afroz S., Alamgir M., Khan M. T. H., Jabbar S., Nahar N. and Choudhuri M. S. K. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethanol extract of Paederia foetida Linn. (Rubiaceae) Journal of EthnopharmacologyVolume 105, Issues 1–2, 21 April 2006, Pages 125–130 8. De S., Ravishankar B. and Bhavsar G. C. Investigation of the anti-inflammatory effects of Paederia foetida. J Ethnopharmacol. 1994, 43(1):31-38.